The recent establishment of the European Higher Education Area and the ongoing monitoring carried out by the Bologna Follow-up Group raises the question: to what extent have the objectives of the Bologna Process been implemented in the varied higher education systems of the 47 signatory states, including the former Soviet Union states? This article concentrates on the extent of the Bologna Process implementation in Russia and Ukraine at the national policy level, focusing on the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS), the dual-cycle degree organisation and the development of quality assurance. Based on official documentation, it appears that by 2009 Ukraine had achieved more than Russia in the implementation of Bologna aims and objectives. The theoretical approach suggested by Heinze and Krill is used to identify the national considerations of Russia and Ukraine relative to the Bologna Process, and Phillips and Ochs' model of policy transfer is employed to analyse the similarities and differences of the Bologna Process implementation in Russia and Ukraine. The findings suggest that while Ukraine may have implemented more of the Bologna Process objectives overall, including ECTS and the degree cycles, Russia has made progress in the diploma supplement, and both countries are at a similar level of quality assurance.
- Bologna Process
- higher education systems