The applicability of GATT article XX(a) to animal welfare

Iyan Offor, Jan Walter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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This literature review synthesises recent academic commentary analysing whether there is evidence that trade restrictions aimed at protecting animal
welfare can be justified under Article XX(a) of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1994 and thus whether such measures can be complimentary to and comply with the World Trade Organisation's (WTO) free trade agenda. The literature review places particular emphasis on the EC - Seal Products case and the way the case has evolved interpretations of GATT Article XX(a).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-20
Number of pages11
JournalThe UK Journal of Animal Law
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 2017


  • trade restirctions
  • World Trade Organisation
  • general agreement on tariffs and trade
  • GATT
  • animal welfare


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