The 2020 UV emitter roadmap

Hiroshi Amano, Ramón Collazo, Carlo De Santi, Sven Einfeldt, Mitsuru Funato, Johannes Glaab, Sylvia Hagedorn, Akira Hirano, Hideki Hirayama, Ryota Ishii, Yukio Kashima, Yoichi Kawakami, Ronny Kirste, Michael Kneissl, Robert Martin, Frank Mehnke, Matteo Meneghini, Abdallah Ougazzaden, Peter J Parbrook, Siddharth RajanPramod Reddy, Friedhard Römer, Jan Ruschel, Biplab Sarkar, Ferdinand Scholz, Leo J Schowalter, Philip Shields, Zlatko Sitar, Luca Sulmoni, Tao Wang, Tim Wernicke, Markus Weyers, Bernd Witzigmann, Yuh-Renn Wu, Thomas Wunderer, Yuewei Zhang

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313 Citations (Scopus)
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Solid state UV emitters have many advantages over conventional UV sources. The (Al,In,Ga)N material system is best suited to produce LEDs and laser diodes from 400 nm down to 210 nm—due to its large and tuneable direct band gap, n- and p-doping capability up to the largest bandgap material AlN and a growth and fabrication technology compatible with the current visible InGaN-based LED production. However AlGaN based UV-emitters still suffer from numerous challenges compared to their visible counterparts that become most obvious by consideration of their light output power, operation voltage and long term stability. Most of these challenges are related to the large bandgap of the materials. However, the development since the first realization of UV electroluminescence in the 1970s shows that an improvement in understanding and technology allows the performance of UV emitters to be pushed far beyond the current state. One example is the very recent realization of edge emitting laser diodes emitting in the UVC at 271.8 nm and in the UVB spectral range at 298 nm. This roadmap summarizes the current state of the art for the most important aspects of UV emitters, their challenges and provides an outlook for future developments.
Original languageEnglish
Article number503001
Number of pages57
JournalJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Issue number50
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sept 2020


  • AlGaN
  • InGaN
  • UV-LED
  • light emitting diodes
  • ultraviolet


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