Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate associated nephrotoxicity: a retrospective cohort study at two referral hospitals in Namibia

Francis Kalemeera, Brian Godman, Andy Stergachis, Tim Rennie

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Introduction: The incidence and risk factors of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-related renal impairment (RI) in Namibia are unknown where TDF-containing ART regimens are used as the first line for HIV. Methodology: A retrospective cohort study among HIV-infected patients at two intermediate hospitals. A decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was significant if it was ≥25% and included a change to a lower eGFR stage. New-onset RI was defined as an eGFR <50 mL/min/1.73m 2. Results: 10 387 patients were included: 11.4% (n = 1182) experienced the decline in eGFR. Of these, 0.6% (n = 62) migrated to eGFR stages IV and V. The incidence was 4.5 (95% CI: 4.3-4.8) per 100 patient years. RI developed in 400 patients for an incidence rate of 2.4 (95% CI: 2.2-2.6) cases per 100 patient years. Risk factors with effect sizes >2.0, for decline-in-eGFR were baseline eGFR >60 (aHR = 15.6); hyperfiltration (aHR = 5.0); and pregnancy (aHR = 2.4); while for RI, they were hyperfiltration (aHR = 4.1) and pregnancy (aHR = 29). Conclusion: The incidence of decline-in-eGFR was higher than in other sub-SSA countries, but not RI. A high baseline eGFR had the greatest risk for the decline, and hyperfiltration for the RI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-200
Number of pages12
JournalPharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Issue number2
Early online date2 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2021


  • tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
  • nephrotoxicity
  • Namibia

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