Ten year performance evaluation of a field-scale zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier installed to remediate trichloroethene contaminated groundwater

D.H. Phillips, T. Van Nooten, L. Bastiaens, M. I. Russell, K. Dickson, S. Plant, J. M. E. Ahad, T. Newton, T. Elliot, R. M. Kalin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

160 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Monkstown zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (ZVI PRB), Europe's oldest commercially-installed ZVI PRB, had been treating trichloroethene (ICE) contaminated groundwater for about 10 years on the Nortel Network site in Northern Ireland when cores from the reactive zone were collected in December, 2006. Groundwater data from 2001-2006 indicated that TCE is still being remediated to below detection limits as the contaminated groundwater flows through the PRB. Ca and Fe carbonates, crystalline and amorphous Fe sulfides, and Fe (hydr)oxides have precipitated in the granular ZVI material in the PRB. The greatest variety of minerals is associated with a similar to 1-2 cm thick, slightly cemented crust on top (up-gradient influent entrance) of the ZVI section of the PRB and also with the discontinuous cemented ZVI material (similar to 23 cm thick) directly below it. The greatest presence of microbial communities also occurred in the up-gradient influent portion of the PRB compared to its down-gradient effluent section, with the latter possibly due to less favorable conditions (i.e., high pH, low oxygen) for microbial growth. The ZVI filings in the down-gradient effluent section of the PRB have a projected life span of >10 years compared with ZVI filings from the continuous to discontinuous cemented up-gradient ZVI section (upper similar to 25 cm) of the PRB, which may have a life span of only similar to 2-5 more years. Supporting Information from applied, multi-tracer testing indicated that restricted groundwater flow is occurring in the upper similar to 25 cm of the ZVI section and preferential pathways have also formed in this PRB over its 10 years of operation.
LanguageEnglish
Pages3861-3869
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume44
Issue number10
Early online date26 Apr 2010
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2010

Fingerprint

Trichloroethylene
reactive barrier
Groundwater flow
trichloroethylene
groundwater flow
Groundwater
Effluents
Iron
effluent
iron
groundwater
Granular materials
Carbonates
Sulfides
Oxides
Minerals
microbial community
tracer
sulfide
oxide

Keywords

  • long-term performance
  • granular iron
  • mineralogical characteristics
  • reductive dechlorination
  • aquifer sediments
  • community
  • dynamics
  • columns
  • impact
  • transformations

Cite this

Phillips, D.H. ; Van Nooten, T. ; Bastiaens, L. ; Russell, M. I. ; Dickson, K. ; Plant, S. ; Ahad, J. M. E. ; Newton, T. ; Elliot, T. ; Kalin, R. M. / Ten year performance evaluation of a field-scale zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier installed to remediate trichloroethene contaminated groundwater. In: Environmental Science and Technology. 2010 ; Vol. 44, No. 10. pp. 3861-3869.
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Ten year performance evaluation of a field-scale zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier installed to remediate trichloroethene contaminated groundwater. / Phillips, D.H.; Van Nooten, T.; Bastiaens, L.; Russell, M. I.; Dickson, K.; Plant, S.; Ahad, J. M. E.; Newton, T.; Elliot, T.; Kalin, R. M.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 44, No. 10, 15.05.2010, p. 3861-3869.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Ten year performance evaluation of a field-scale zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier installed to remediate trichloroethene contaminated groundwater

AU - Phillips, D.H.

AU - Van Nooten, T.

AU - Bastiaens, L.

AU - Russell, M. I.

AU - Dickson, K.

AU - Plant, S.

AU - Ahad, J. M. E.

AU - Newton, T.

AU - Elliot, T.

AU - Kalin, R. M.

PY - 2010/5/15

Y1 - 2010/5/15

N2 - The Monkstown zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (ZVI PRB), Europe's oldest commercially-installed ZVI PRB, had been treating trichloroethene (ICE) contaminated groundwater for about 10 years on the Nortel Network site in Northern Ireland when cores from the reactive zone were collected in December, 2006. Groundwater data from 2001-2006 indicated that TCE is still being remediated to below detection limits as the contaminated groundwater flows through the PRB. Ca and Fe carbonates, crystalline and amorphous Fe sulfides, and Fe (hydr)oxides have precipitated in the granular ZVI material in the PRB. The greatest variety of minerals is associated with a similar to 1-2 cm thick, slightly cemented crust on top (up-gradient influent entrance) of the ZVI section of the PRB and also with the discontinuous cemented ZVI material (similar to 23 cm thick) directly below it. The greatest presence of microbial communities also occurred in the up-gradient influent portion of the PRB compared to its down-gradient effluent section, with the latter possibly due to less favorable conditions (i.e., high pH, low oxygen) for microbial growth. The ZVI filings in the down-gradient effluent section of the PRB have a projected life span of >10 years compared with ZVI filings from the continuous to discontinuous cemented up-gradient ZVI section (upper similar to 25 cm) of the PRB, which may have a life span of only similar to 2-5 more years. Supporting Information from applied, multi-tracer testing indicated that restricted groundwater flow is occurring in the upper similar to 25 cm of the ZVI section and preferential pathways have also formed in this PRB over its 10 years of operation.

AB - The Monkstown zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (ZVI PRB), Europe's oldest commercially-installed ZVI PRB, had been treating trichloroethene (ICE) contaminated groundwater for about 10 years on the Nortel Network site in Northern Ireland when cores from the reactive zone were collected in December, 2006. Groundwater data from 2001-2006 indicated that TCE is still being remediated to below detection limits as the contaminated groundwater flows through the PRB. Ca and Fe carbonates, crystalline and amorphous Fe sulfides, and Fe (hydr)oxides have precipitated in the granular ZVI material in the PRB. The greatest variety of minerals is associated with a similar to 1-2 cm thick, slightly cemented crust on top (up-gradient influent entrance) of the ZVI section of the PRB and also with the discontinuous cemented ZVI material (similar to 23 cm thick) directly below it. The greatest presence of microbial communities also occurred in the up-gradient influent portion of the PRB compared to its down-gradient effluent section, with the latter possibly due to less favorable conditions (i.e., high pH, low oxygen) for microbial growth. The ZVI filings in the down-gradient effluent section of the PRB have a projected life span of >10 years compared with ZVI filings from the continuous to discontinuous cemented up-gradient ZVI section (upper similar to 25 cm) of the PRB, which may have a life span of only similar to 2-5 more years. Supporting Information from applied, multi-tracer testing indicated that restricted groundwater flow is occurring in the upper similar to 25 cm of the ZVI section and preferential pathways have also formed in this PRB over its 10 years of operation.

KW - long-term performance

KW - granular iron

KW - mineralogical characteristics

KW - reductive dechlorination

KW - aquifer sediments

KW - community

KW - dynamics

KW - columns

KW - impact

KW - transformations

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DO - 10.1021/es902737t

M3 - Article

VL - 44

SP - 3861

EP - 3869

JO - Environmental Science and Technology

T2 - Environmental Science and Technology

JF - Environmental Science and Technology

SN - 0013-936X

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