Temperature dependence of spontaneous switch-on and switch-off of laser cavity solitons in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with frequency-selective feedback

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Abstract

A systematic experimental and numerical investigation of the conditions for the spontaneous formation of laser cavity solitons in broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with frequency-selective feedback by a volume Bragg grating is reported. It is shown that the switching thresholds are controlled by a combination of frequency shifts induced by ambient temperature and Joule heating. The gain level has only a minor influence on the threshold but controls mainly the power of the solitons. At large initial detuning and high threshold gain, the first observed structure can be a high order soliton. In real devices spatial disorder in the cavity length causes a pinning of solitons and a dispersion of thresholds. The experimental observations are in good agreement with numerical simulations taking into account disorder and the coupling of gain and cavity resonance due to Joule heating. In particular, we demonstrate that the existence of the traps explain the spontaneous switch on of the solitons, but do not modify the soliton shape significantly, i.e. the observed solitons are a good approximation of the ones expected in a homogeneous system.
LanguageEnglish
Article number095110
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Volume49
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Feb 2016

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Laser resonators
Surface emitting lasers
laser cavities
surface emitting lasers
Solitons
switches
solitary waves
Switches
Feedback
temperature dependence
cavities
Joule heating
thresholds
Temperature
disorders
Bragg gratings
frequency shift
ambient temperature
traps
heating

Keywords

  • laser soliton
  • VCSEL
  • disorder
  • spontaneous appearance
  • dispersive optical bistability

Cite this

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title = "Temperature dependence of spontaneous switch-on and switch-off of laser cavity solitons in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with frequency-selective feedback",
abstract = "A systematic experimental and numerical investigation of the conditions for the spontaneous formation of laser cavity solitons in broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with frequency-selective feedback by a volume Bragg grating is reported. It is shown that the switching thresholds are controlled by a combination of frequency shifts induced by ambient temperature and Joule heating. The gain level has only a minor influence on the threshold but controls mainly the power of the solitons. At large initial detuning and high threshold gain, the first observed structure can be a high order soliton. In real devices spatial disorder in the cavity length causes a pinning of solitons and a dispersion of thresholds. The experimental observations are in good agreement with numerical simulations taking into account disorder and the coupling of gain and cavity resonance due to Joule heating. In particular, we demonstrate that the existence of the traps explain the spontaneous switch on of the solitons, but do not modify the soliton shape significantly, i.e. the observed solitons are a good approximation of the ones expected in a homogeneous system.",
keywords = "laser soliton, VCSEL, disorder, spontaneous appearance, dispersive optical bistability",
author = "J Jimenez and G-L Oppo and T Ackemann",
note = "This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. The publisher is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. The Version of Record is available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/49/9/095110",
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T1 - Temperature dependence of spontaneous switch-on and switch-off of laser cavity solitons in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with frequency-selective feedback

AU - Jimenez, J

AU - Oppo, G-L

AU - Ackemann, T

N1 - This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. The publisher is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. The Version of Record is available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/49/9/095110

PY - 2016/2/2

Y1 - 2016/2/2

N2 - A systematic experimental and numerical investigation of the conditions for the spontaneous formation of laser cavity solitons in broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with frequency-selective feedback by a volume Bragg grating is reported. It is shown that the switching thresholds are controlled by a combination of frequency shifts induced by ambient temperature and Joule heating. The gain level has only a minor influence on the threshold but controls mainly the power of the solitons. At large initial detuning and high threshold gain, the first observed structure can be a high order soliton. In real devices spatial disorder in the cavity length causes a pinning of solitons and a dispersion of thresholds. The experimental observations are in good agreement with numerical simulations taking into account disorder and the coupling of gain and cavity resonance due to Joule heating. In particular, we demonstrate that the existence of the traps explain the spontaneous switch on of the solitons, but do not modify the soliton shape significantly, i.e. the observed solitons are a good approximation of the ones expected in a homogeneous system.

AB - A systematic experimental and numerical investigation of the conditions for the spontaneous formation of laser cavity solitons in broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with frequency-selective feedback by a volume Bragg grating is reported. It is shown that the switching thresholds are controlled by a combination of frequency shifts induced by ambient temperature and Joule heating. The gain level has only a minor influence on the threshold but controls mainly the power of the solitons. At large initial detuning and high threshold gain, the first observed structure can be a high order soliton. In real devices spatial disorder in the cavity length causes a pinning of solitons and a dispersion of thresholds. The experimental observations are in good agreement with numerical simulations taking into account disorder and the coupling of gain and cavity resonance due to Joule heating. In particular, we demonstrate that the existence of the traps explain the spontaneous switch on of the solitons, but do not modify the soliton shape significantly, i.e. the observed solitons are a good approximation of the ones expected in a homogeneous system.

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KW - VCSEL

KW - disorder

KW - spontaneous appearance

KW - dispersive optical bistability

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