Teacher attitudes and behavior toward the inclusion of children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties in mainstream schools: an application of the theory of planned behavior

Kate MacFarlane, Lisa Marks Woolfson

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The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to examine relationships between teacher attitudes and behavior towards children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). One hundred and eleven elementary school teachers completed questionnaires. Teacher perception of their school principal’s expectations (subjective norm) predicted teacher behaviors. Teachers who had attended more in-service training (INSET) sessions held more positive feelings, but teachers with more experience were less willing to work with children with SEBD. Findings suggest that school principals have a central role in promoting an inclusive ethos within their schools. INSET could focus more on challenging beliefs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)46-52
Number of pages7
JournalTeaching and Teacher Education
Early online date20 Sep 2012
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2013


  • teacher education
  • teacher attitudes
  • behavioral difficulties
  • theory of planned behavior
  • inclusion
  • mainstream schools

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