Take-home naloxone carriage among opioid users in Lanarkshire

Duncan Hill, Buthania Al azizi, Stephen Conroy, Gazala Akram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Naloxone has been used widely as a means of reducing opioid overdose related deaths. Despite the wide distribution of naloxone kits among drug users, limited understanding exists as to how naloxone is perceived and carried amongst different populations of drug users. 

Aims: To assess naloxone carriage rate among drug users in Lanarkshire, Scotland. To additionally examine drug users' knowledge about wider aspects associated with naloxone use and storage. 

Methods: A cross sectional survey of addiction service users, using a 10 item semi-structured questionnaire which was administered by addiction service workers during autumn 2016. 

Results: 310 individuals were surveyed. The majority (n=179, 58%) had retained the naloxone supplied to them. 21 reported to be carrying their naloxone at interview (11.3%), 43 (24%) reported not having their naloxone available the last time they used drugs. When asked where their naloxone supply was, the most commonly reported place for storing their naloxone was 'Home' (n= 129, 72.1%). 

Conclusion: The low carriage rate of naloxone among drug users suggests that wide distribution and current training programmes are not being sufficiently heeded, and for take-home naloxone programmes to succeed further research at both individual and system levels is required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-50
Number of pages6
JournalHeroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2021


  • carriage
  • drug users
  • Lanarkshire
  • Naloxone
  • opioid


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