Synthesis and characterisation of microporous polymer microspheres with strong cation-exchange character

Peter Cormack, Arlene Davies, Nuria Fontanals Torroja

Research output: Contribution to journalSpecial issue

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this paper the synthesis and characterization of microporous polymer microspheres with ultra-high specific surface areas (>1000 m2/g) and strong cation-exchange character is described. The microspheres were synthesized by the hypercrosslinking of swellable precursor particles which had been produced by precipitation polymerization. The strong cation-exchange character, arising from the presence of sulfonic acid groups, was introduced through post-hypercrosslinking chemical modification reactions. Two alkyl sulfate reagents of differing polarity were compared as reagents for the sulfonation reactions, and a synthetic methodology was devised that allowed the sulfonic acid content of the microspheres to be controlled. Following a series of small-scale optimization experiments, optimized conditions were applied on a larger scale to the synthesis of three distinct polymers (HXLPP-SCX) tailored for use as strong cation-exchange (SCX) sorbents in solid-phase extraction (SPE) studies. All three polymers were in the form of polymer microspheres (mean particle diameters 3–5 lm) with relatively narrow particle size distributions and specific surface areas up to 1370 m2/g, and had tuneable ion-exchange capacities (IECs) ranging
from 1.7–2.8 mmol/g.
LanguageEnglish
Pages939-946
Number of pages7
JournalReactive and Functional Polymers
Volume72
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Fingerprint

Microspheres
Cations
ion exchange
Ion exchange
Polymers
polymer
Positive ions
Sulfonic Acids
Specific surface area
Sulfonation
surface area
Ion Exchange
Solid Phase Extraction
Chemical modification
Sorbents
Particle Size
Particle size analysis
Polymerization
Acids
Particles (particulate matter)

Keywords

  • polymer microspheres
  • hypercrosslinked resin
  • Sulfonation
  • solid-phase extraction
  • mixed-mode strongcation-exchanger

Cite this

@article{1fec5b12c66043a79e1c72ca65b050de,
title = "Synthesis and characterisation of microporous polymer microspheres with strong cation-exchange character",
abstract = "In this paper the synthesis and characterization of microporous polymer microspheres with ultra-high specific surface areas (>1000 m2/g) and strong cation-exchange character is described. The microspheres were synthesized by the hypercrosslinking of swellable precursor particles which had been produced by precipitation polymerization. The strong cation-exchange character, arising from the presence of sulfonic acid groups, was introduced through post-hypercrosslinking chemical modification reactions. Two alkyl sulfate reagents of differing polarity were compared as reagents for the sulfonation reactions, and a synthetic methodology was devised that allowed the sulfonic acid content of the microspheres to be controlled. Following a series of small-scale optimization experiments, optimized conditions were applied on a larger scale to the synthesis of three distinct polymers (HXLPP-SCX) tailored for use as strong cation-exchange (SCX) sorbents in solid-phase extraction (SPE) studies. All three polymers were in the form of polymer microspheres (mean particle diameters 3–5 lm) with relatively narrow particle size distributions and specific surface areas up to 1370 m2/g, and had tuneable ion-exchange capacities (IECs) ranging from 1.7–2.8 mmol/g.",
keywords = "polymer microspheres, hypercrosslinked resin, Sulfonation, solid-phase extraction, mixed-mode strongcation-exchanger",
author = "Peter Cormack and Arlene Davies and {Fontanals Torroja}, Nuria",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2012.08.003",
language = "English",
volume = "72",
pages = "939--946",
journal = "Reactive and Functional Polymers",
issn = "1381-5148",

}

Synthesis and characterisation of microporous polymer microspheres with strong cation-exchange character. / Cormack, Peter; Davies, Arlene; Fontanals Torroja, Nuria.

In: Reactive and Functional Polymers, Vol. 72, 2012, p. 939-946.

Research output: Contribution to journalSpecial issue

TY - JOUR

T1 - Synthesis and characterisation of microporous polymer microspheres with strong cation-exchange character

AU - Cormack, Peter

AU - Davies, Arlene

AU - Fontanals Torroja, Nuria

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - In this paper the synthesis and characterization of microporous polymer microspheres with ultra-high specific surface areas (>1000 m2/g) and strong cation-exchange character is described. The microspheres were synthesized by the hypercrosslinking of swellable precursor particles which had been produced by precipitation polymerization. The strong cation-exchange character, arising from the presence of sulfonic acid groups, was introduced through post-hypercrosslinking chemical modification reactions. Two alkyl sulfate reagents of differing polarity were compared as reagents for the sulfonation reactions, and a synthetic methodology was devised that allowed the sulfonic acid content of the microspheres to be controlled. Following a series of small-scale optimization experiments, optimized conditions were applied on a larger scale to the synthesis of three distinct polymers (HXLPP-SCX) tailored for use as strong cation-exchange (SCX) sorbents in solid-phase extraction (SPE) studies. All three polymers were in the form of polymer microspheres (mean particle diameters 3–5 lm) with relatively narrow particle size distributions and specific surface areas up to 1370 m2/g, and had tuneable ion-exchange capacities (IECs) ranging from 1.7–2.8 mmol/g.

AB - In this paper the synthesis and characterization of microporous polymer microspheres with ultra-high specific surface areas (>1000 m2/g) and strong cation-exchange character is described. The microspheres were synthesized by the hypercrosslinking of swellable precursor particles which had been produced by precipitation polymerization. The strong cation-exchange character, arising from the presence of sulfonic acid groups, was introduced through post-hypercrosslinking chemical modification reactions. Two alkyl sulfate reagents of differing polarity were compared as reagents for the sulfonation reactions, and a synthetic methodology was devised that allowed the sulfonic acid content of the microspheres to be controlled. Following a series of small-scale optimization experiments, optimized conditions were applied on a larger scale to the synthesis of three distinct polymers (HXLPP-SCX) tailored for use as strong cation-exchange (SCX) sorbents in solid-phase extraction (SPE) studies. All three polymers were in the form of polymer microspheres (mean particle diameters 3–5 lm) with relatively narrow particle size distributions and specific surface areas up to 1370 m2/g, and had tuneable ion-exchange capacities (IECs) ranging from 1.7–2.8 mmol/g.

KW - polymer microspheres

KW - hypercrosslinked resin

KW - Sulfonation

KW - solid-phase extraction

KW - mixed-mode strongcation-exchanger

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84869096155&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2012.08.003

DO - 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2012.08.003

M3 - Special issue

VL - 72

SP - 939

EP - 946

JO - Reactive and Functional Polymers

T2 - Reactive and Functional Polymers

JF - Reactive and Functional Polymers

SN - 1381-5148

ER -