This study distinguishes between issuer underpricing and subscriber returns, and estimates their magnitudes for U.K. privatization initial public offers (PIPOs). It proposes and tests empirical models which incorporate theoretical, institutional, and other factors which interact to explain subscriber returns and issuer underpricing. The estimates reveal that, on average, issuer underpricing, which is measured relative to the total equity market value on the first day of trading, is 23.62%, whereas the average raw return available to subscribers is up to 41%. Regression analysis shows that underwriters' commission, market volatility, regulatory situation of the company, proportion of share clawback, and demand for shares taken together explain up to 70% of the variation in issuer underpricing and 64% of subscribers' returns. The evaluation of the long-run performance of PIPOs to assess the extent to which initial gains to subscribers persist for longer periods concludes that U.K. PIPOs, on average, provide long-run holding gains to investors, unlike their private sector counterparts.
- privatization initial public offers
- market volatility