Structural study of salt forms of amides; paracetamol, benzamide and piperine

Alan R. Kennedy, Nathan L.C. King, Iain D.H. Oswald, David G. Rollo, Rebecca Spiteri, Aiden Walls

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4 Citations (Scopus)
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Single crystal x-ray diffraction has been used to investigate the structures of six complexes containing O-atom protonated cations derived from the pharmaceutically relevant amides benzamide (BEN), paracetamol (PAR) and piperine (PIP). The structures of the salt forms [PAR(H)][SO3C6H4Cl], [BEN(H)][O3SC6H4Cl] and [BEN(H)][Br].H2O are reported along with those of the hemi-halide salt forms [PAR(H)][I3].PAR , [PIP(H)][I3].PIP and [PIP(H)][I3]0.5[I]0.5.PIP. The structure of the cocrystal BEN.HOOCCH2Cl is also presented for comparison. The geometry of the amide group is found to systematically change upon protonation, with the C=O distance increasing and the C-N distance decreasing. The hemi-halide species all feature strongly hydrogen bonded amide(H)/amide pairs. The amide group C=O and C-N distances for both elements of each such pair are intermediate between those found for simple neutral amide and protonated amide forms. It was found that crystallising paracetamol from aqueous solutions containing Ba2+ ions gave orthorhombic paracetamol.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)196-203
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Molecular Structure
Early online date13 Oct 2017
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2018


  • crystal structure
  • active pharmaceutical ingredients
  • salt selection
  • protonated amide
  • paracetamol
  • benzamide
  • piperine

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