Structural evidence for synergistic bimetallic main group bases

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Recent years have seen a proliferation in metallation (C-H to C-metal) reactions performed by compounds or mixtures of compounds that contain two different metal elements. Often these reactions are substantial improvements upon those carried out by conventional organometallic bases such as lithium alkyls or lithium amides. The origin of such improvements can be interpreted as synergistic (sometimes labelled synergic or cooperative) in the sense that the combined participation of the two metal partners can actuate chemical reactivities that cannot be matched by either metal partner on its own. This chapter is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather it collates numerous examples of these bimetallic base systems involving two main group metals. Emphasis is mainly on crystallographically-characterised bases for which clearly defined synergistic reactivity has been demonstrated. As a prelude to the bimetallic research, conventional monometallic bases are discussed briefly to put into context the fundamental structural principles involved in making a good organometallic base.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPolar Organometallic Reagents
Subtitle of host publicationSynthesis, Structure, Properties and Applications
EditorsAndrew E. H. Wheatley, Masanobu Uchiyama
Place of PublicationHoboken, NJ
Number of pages46
ISBN (Electronic)9781119448846
Publication statusPublished - 31 Mar 2022


  • organometallic chemistry
  • reagents
  • heterometallic complexes


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