GaN was implanted with 300 keV Eu ions over a wide fluence range from 1 × 1013 to 1 × 1016 Eu cm−2 at room temperature (RT) or 500 °C. Detailed structural and optical characterizations of the samples were performed using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and channelling, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, wavelength dispersive x-ray emission and RT cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. RT implantation results in a sigmoidal-shaped damage build-up curve with four regimes that were correlated with the formation of specific kinds of defects. After annealing at 1000 °C only samples implanted to fluences below 0.8 × 1015 Eu cm−2 showed near complete recovery of the crystal. Implantation at elevated temperature significantly decreases the implantation damage and increases the fraction of Eu incorporated on substitutional Ga-sites. The improved structural properties of samples implanted at elevated temperature are reflected in a higher intensity of Eu-related red light emission after annealing at 1000 °C. The RT CL intensity is correlated with the number of Eu ions on substitutional Ga-sites after annealing. Furthermore, a detailed study of optical activation shows that the optimum annealing temperature depends on the implantation fluence due to the sensitive balance of defects removed and created during high temperature annealing.
- electron microscopy
- dipersive spectrometry
- ion implantation
- gallium nitride
Lorenz, K., Barradas, N. P., Alves, E., Roqan, I. S., Nogales, E., Martin, R. W., ... Ruterana, P. (2009). Structural and optical characterization of Eu-implanted GaN. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 42(16), . https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/42/16/165103