Strategic options development and analysis (SODA)

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution book


Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA) is a method for working on complex problems. It is an approach designed to help OR consultants help their clients with messy problems.
SODA uses interview and cognitive mapping to capture individual views of an issue. Group maps constructed through the aggregation of individual cognitive maps are used to facilitate negotiation about value/goal systems, key strategic issues, and option portfolios. As well as problem content, attention is paid to the affective, political, and process dynamics in the group.
SODA aims to provide a management team with a model as a device to aid negotiation, working with individuality and subjectivity as the basis for problem definition and creativity. It tends to generate increasingly rich models, rather than move towards abstraction or simplicity and sees strategic management in terms of changing thinking and action rather than planning.
The method aims to develop high levels of ownership for a problem through the attention paid to problem definition and negotiation. It is aimed at groups of four to ten participants.
The process uses two personal computers, special software (COPE, see below), one (preferably two) large monitors, blank wall space, large sheets of paper, and water based pens. It is managed by two facilitators - one who attends primarily to content and one to process. SODA was originally developed by Colin Eden at the University of Bath.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRational analysis revisited
Subtitle of host publicationproceedings of a one-day event on problem structuring methods organised by the Operational Research Society and LASEORS
Editors Andreas J. Reinhold
Place of PublicationBirmingham
Publication statusPublished - 1995


  • strategic options development and analysis
  • SODA
  • operational research


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