Pregnancy outcomes in patients with pulmonary hypertension remain poor despite advanced therapies. Although consensus guidelines recommend against pregnancy in pulmonary hypertension, it may nonetheless occasionally occur. This guideline document sought to discuss the state of knowledge of pregnancy effects on pulmonary vascular disease and to define usual practice in avoidance of pregnancy and pregnancy management. This guideline is based on systematic review of peer-reviewed, published literature identified with MEDLINE. The strength of the literature was graded, and when it was inadequate to support high-level recommendations, consensus-based recommendations were formed according to prespecified criteria. There was no literature that met standards for high-level recommendations for pregnancy management in pulmonary hypertension. We drafted 38 consensus-based recommendations on pregnancy avoidance and management. Further, we identified the current state of knowledge on the effects of sex hormones during pregnancy on the pulmonary vasculature and right heart and suggested areas for future study. There is currently limited evidence-based knowledge about both the basic molecular effects of sex hormones and pregnancy on the pulmonary vasculature and the best practices in contraception and pregnancy management in pulmonary hypertension. We have drafted 38 consensus-based recommendations to guide clinicians in these challenging topics, but further research is needed in this area to define best practices and improve patient outcomes.
- pulmonary hypertension
- pulmonary vascular disease