Standardisation versus adaption: Geographical Pressures To Deviate From Franchise Formats

Colin Mason, Juliet Cox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Citations (Scopus)
99 Downloads (Pure)


There is a tension in business format franchising between, on the one hand, standardisation and uniformity and, on the other hand, geographical variations in market conditions and resource availability. Previous research has demonstrated in the case of independent small firms that local geographical conditions influence business strategy. This paper examines whether variations in the local geographical environment, notably in terms of demand and supply side conditions, affect format implementation and whether franchisors permit franchisees to make local adaptations of the format in response to local environmental conditions. The study is based on interviews with 40 UK-based franchisors, all of whom were at the later stages of roll-out or in the consolidation stage of network development. Local variations in the business environment do create a conflict with the need to maintain the uniformity of the franchise format. Adaptation was restricted to peripheral format components. No changes were made to the core format components. Most franchisors recognise that their franchisees are an important source of new innovation. However, implementation of franchisee ideas across the system is found in only a minority of cases.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1053-1072
Number of pages19
JournalServices Industries Journal
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2007


  • franchising
  • geography
  • adaptation
  • standardisation


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