Spatiotemporal light control with frequency-gradient metasurfaces

Amr M. Shaltout, Konstantinos G. Lagoudakis, Jorik van de Groep, Soo Jin Kim, Jelena Vučković, Vladimir M. Shalaev, Mark L. Brongersma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

105 Citations (Scopus)
95 Downloads (Pure)


The capability of on-chip wavefront modulation has the potential to revolutionize many optical device technologies. However, the realization of power-efficient phasegradient metasurfaces that offer full-phase modulation (0 to 2p) and high operation speeds remains elusive. We present an approach to continuously steer light that is based on creating a virtual frequency-gradient metasurface by combining a passive metasurface with an advanced frequency-comb source. Spatiotemporal redirection of light naturally occurs as optical phase-fronts reorient at a speed controlled by the frequency gradient across the virtual metasurface. An experimental realization of laser beam steering with a continuously changing steering angle is demonstrated with a single metasurface over an angle of 25° in just 8 picoseconds. This work can support integrated-on-chip solutions for spatiotemporal optical control, directly affecting emerging applications such as solid-state light detection and ranging (LIDAR), threedimensional imaging, and augmented or virtual systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)374-377
Number of pages4
JournalScience (New York, N.Y.)
Issue number6451
Publication statusPublished - 26 Jul 2019


  • laser beam steering
  • spatiotemporal light control
  • metasurfaces


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