Some observations of diatoms under turbulence

Stephen J. Clarson, M Steinitz-Kannan, Siddharth Patwardhan, R Kannan, Hartig, R. Schloesser, D. W. Hamilton, J. K. A Fusaro, Ryan Beltz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effect of turbulence on several freshwater diatom taxa was investigated and our findings are described herein. We have compared diatom morphology in shallow natural systems that experience turbulence due to wind and
in river/waterfall systems where turbulence is due to high flow rates. We have also introduced turbulence into diatom laboratory cultures by mechanical shaking and by forcing air into the media. In particular, we have studied diatoms in five independent environments or cultures: the freshwater diatoms Tabellaria and Eunotia in equatorial lakes experiencing extreme seasonal variability in depth; two freshwater diatom monocultures of Aulacoseira granulata var
angustissima and Melosira varians in the laboratory; and a freshwater diatom community possessing equal amounts (by number) of elongated and non-elongated diatoms (mostly Nitzschia and mostly Cyclotella, respectively) in
the laboratory. We have demonstrated the effect of turbulence on freshwater diatom frustule morphologies and, perhaps more importantly, the effect of turbulence on freshwater diatom species population after controlled
perturbation of the organisms’ environment. It has been widely reported that symmetry is often preferred in biological evolution, however here we have observed a preference towards asymmetry for the survival of diatoms in the presence of environmental stress (in particular, turbulence). We also note that to date there have been no systematic attempts to manipulate diatom frustules using external stimuli. We therefore present a proof-of-concept study in order to demonstrate: (i) that diatom morphologies can be manipulated by controlled simple external triggers (chemical and physical) (ii) that population balance (i.e.
natural selection) can be controlled via simple external triggers (chemical and physical). This approach could open up an entire new field of future studies wherein controlled environmental perturbations are used to manipulate the
structure, form, growth and reproduction of biological species.
LanguageEnglish
Pages79-90
Number of pages12
JournalSilicon
Volume1
Issue number2
Early online date22 Oct 2009
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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Turbulence
Lakes
Rivers
Flow rate
Air

Keywords

  • diatoms
  • natural selection
  • turbulence
  • silica
  • biosilica

Cite this

Clarson, S. J., Steinitz-Kannan, M., Patwardhan, S., Kannan, R., Schloesser, H. R., Hamilton, D. W., ... Beltz, R. (2009). Some observations of diatoms under turbulence. Silicon, 1(2), 79-90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12633-009-9018-y
Clarson, Stephen J. ; Steinitz-Kannan, M ; Patwardhan, Siddharth ; Kannan, R ; Schloesser, Hartig, R. ; Hamilton, D. W. ; Fusaro, J. K. A ; Beltz, Ryan. / Some observations of diatoms under turbulence. In: Silicon. 2009 ; Vol. 1, No. 2. pp. 79-90.
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Clarson, SJ, Steinitz-Kannan, M, Patwardhan, S, Kannan, R, Schloesser, HR, Hamilton, DW, Fusaro, JKA & Beltz, R 2009, 'Some observations of diatoms under turbulence' Silicon, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 79-90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12633-009-9018-y

Some observations of diatoms under turbulence. / Clarson, Stephen J.; Steinitz-Kannan, M ; Patwardhan, Siddharth; Kannan, R; Schloesser, Hartig, R.; Hamilton, D. W.; Fusaro, J. K. A; Beltz, Ryan.

In: Silicon, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2009, p. 79-90.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Some observations of diatoms under turbulence

AU - Clarson, Stephen J.

AU - Steinitz-Kannan, M

AU - Patwardhan, Siddharth

AU - Kannan, R

AU - Schloesser, Hartig, R.

AU - Hamilton, D. W.

AU - Fusaro, J. K. A

AU - Beltz, Ryan

PY - 2009

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N2 - The effect of turbulence on several freshwater diatom taxa was investigated and our findings are described herein. We have compared diatom morphology in shallow natural systems that experience turbulence due to wind andin river/waterfall systems where turbulence is due to high flow rates. We have also introduced turbulence into diatom laboratory cultures by mechanical shaking and by forcing air into the media. In particular, we have studied diatoms in five independent environments or cultures: the freshwater diatoms Tabellaria and Eunotia in equatorial lakes experiencing extreme seasonal variability in depth; two freshwater diatom monocultures of Aulacoseira granulata varangustissima and Melosira varians in the laboratory; and a freshwater diatom community possessing equal amounts (by number) of elongated and non-elongated diatoms (mostly Nitzschia and mostly Cyclotella, respectively) inthe laboratory. We have demonstrated the effect of turbulence on freshwater diatom frustule morphologies and, perhaps more importantly, the effect of turbulence on freshwater diatom species population after controlledperturbation of the organisms’ environment. It has been widely reported that symmetry is often preferred in biological evolution, however here we have observed a preference towards asymmetry for the survival of diatoms in the presence of environmental stress (in particular, turbulence). We also note that to date there have been no systematic attempts to manipulate diatom frustules using external stimuli. We therefore present a proof-of-concept study in order to demonstrate: (i) that diatom morphologies can be manipulated by controlled simple external triggers (chemical and physical) (ii) that population balance (i.e.natural selection) can be controlled via simple external triggers (chemical and physical). This approach could open up an entire new field of future studies wherein controlled environmental perturbations are used to manipulate thestructure, form, growth and reproduction of biological species.

AB - The effect of turbulence on several freshwater diatom taxa was investigated and our findings are described herein. We have compared diatom morphology in shallow natural systems that experience turbulence due to wind andin river/waterfall systems where turbulence is due to high flow rates. We have also introduced turbulence into diatom laboratory cultures by mechanical shaking and by forcing air into the media. In particular, we have studied diatoms in five independent environments or cultures: the freshwater diatoms Tabellaria and Eunotia in equatorial lakes experiencing extreme seasonal variability in depth; two freshwater diatom monocultures of Aulacoseira granulata varangustissima and Melosira varians in the laboratory; and a freshwater diatom community possessing equal amounts (by number) of elongated and non-elongated diatoms (mostly Nitzschia and mostly Cyclotella, respectively) inthe laboratory. We have demonstrated the effect of turbulence on freshwater diatom frustule morphologies and, perhaps more importantly, the effect of turbulence on freshwater diatom species population after controlledperturbation of the organisms’ environment. It has been widely reported that symmetry is often preferred in biological evolution, however here we have observed a preference towards asymmetry for the survival of diatoms in the presence of environmental stress (in particular, turbulence). We also note that to date there have been no systematic attempts to manipulate diatom frustules using external stimuli. We therefore present a proof-of-concept study in order to demonstrate: (i) that diatom morphologies can be manipulated by controlled simple external triggers (chemical and physical) (ii) that population balance (i.e.natural selection) can be controlled via simple external triggers (chemical and physical). This approach could open up an entire new field of future studies wherein controlled environmental perturbations are used to manipulate thestructure, form, growth and reproduction of biological species.

KW - diatoms

KW - natural selection

KW - turbulence

KW - silica

KW - biosilica

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DO - 10.1007/s12633-009-9018-y

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Clarson SJ, Steinitz-Kannan M, Patwardhan S, Kannan R, Schloesser HR, Hamilton DW et al. Some observations of diatoms under turbulence. Silicon. 2009;1(2):79-90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12633-009-9018-y