{"title":"Optimum Shape and Design of Cooling Towers","authors":"A. M. El Ansary, A. A. El Damatty, A. O. Nassef","volume":60,"journal":"International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering","pagesStart":655,"pagesEnd":665,"ISSN":"1307-6892","URL":"https:\/\/publications.waset.org\/pdf\/6558","abstract":"The aim of the current study is to develop a numerical\ntool that is capable of achieving an optimum shape and design of\nhyperbolic cooling towers based on coupling a non-linear finite\nelement model developed in-house and a genetic algorithm\noptimization technique. The objective function is set to be the\nminimum weight of the tower. The geometric modeling of the tower\nis represented by means of B-spline curves. The finite element\nmethod is applied to model the elastic buckling behaviour of a tower\nsubjected to wind pressure and dead load. The study is divided into\ntwo main parts. The first part investigates the optimum shape of the\ntower corresponding to minimum weight assuming constant\nthickness. The study is extended in the second part by introducing the\nshell thickness as one of the design variables in order to achieve an\noptimum shape and design. Design, functionality and practicality\nconstraints are applied.","references":"[1] O.C. Zienkiewicz, J.C. Campbell, \"Shape optimization and sequential\nlinear programming\", in: R.A. Gallagher, O.E. Zienkiewicz (Eds.),\nOptimum Structural Design, Wiley, New York, pp. 109-126, 1973.\n[2] C.V. Ramakrishnan, A. Francavilla, \"Structural shape optimization\nusing penalty functions\", J. Struct. Mech. 3 (4), 403-422, 1975.\n[3] R.J. Yang, D.L. Dewhirst, J.E. Allison, A. Lee, \"Shape optimization of\nconnecting rod pin end using a generic model\", Finite element Analysis.\n257-264, 1992.\n[4] K.H. Chang, K.K. Choi, \"A geometry-based parameterization method\nfor shape design of elastic solids\", Mech. Struct. And Mach. 215-252,\n1992.\n[5] P.L. Gould, and S.L. Lee, \"Bending of hyperbolic cooling towers\", J.\nStruct. Div. ASCE 93 (ST5) 125-146, 1967.\n[6] J. Pieczara, \"Optimization of cooling tower shells using a simple genetic\nalgorithm\", Struct Multidisc Optim 19, 311-316, 2000.\n[7] W. B. Kratzig, W. Zerna, \"Resistance of hyperbolic cooling towers to\nwind and earthquake loading\", In: Pister KS, editor. Structural\nengineering and structural mechanics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-\nHall; P. 419-45, 1980.\n[8] ACI-ASCE Committee 334, \"Recommended Practice for the Design and\nConstruction of Reinforced Concrete Cooling Towers\", ACI J., 74(1),\n22-31, 1977.\n[9] H. J. Niemann, \"Wind effects on cooling-tower shells\", Journal of\nStructural Engineering, ASCE; 106(3):643-61, 1980.\n[10] ASCE, \"Minimum design loads for Buildings and other structures\",\nASCE 7-98, Reston, Va, 1999.\n[11] B. J. Vickery, J. Galsworthy, and A. A. El Damatty, BLWT-SS46-2007.\n\"Wind loads and Interference effects for the cooling tower at the\nCardinal #3 Plant\", November, 2007.\n[12] A. M. El Ansary, \"Optimum Design of Shell Structures\" Ph.D.\ndissertation. The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario,\nCanada. 2010.\n[13] L. Piegl, W. Tiller, \"The NURBS book\", Berlin, Heidel-berg, New\nYork:Springer, 1995.\n[14] B. Koziey, F. A. Mirza, \"Consistent thick shell element\", Computers and\nStructures, 65(12):531-41, 1997.\n[15] A. A. El Damatty, F. A. Mirza, R. M. Korol, \"Large displacements\nextension of consistent shell element for static and dynamic analysis\",\nComputers and Structures; 62(6):943-60, 1997.\n[16] D. E. Goldberg, \"Genetic Algorithms in search\", Optimization and\nMachine Learning. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., New\nYork, 1989.\n[17] L. Davis, Handbook of Genetic Algorithms, Van Nostrand Reinhold,\nNew York, 1991.\n[18] P. L. Gould, W. B. Kratzig \"Cooling tower structures\", In: Chen W,\neditor. Handbook of structural engineering. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press\nInc. P. 473-504, 1998.\n[19] D. Busch, R. Harte, W. B. Kratzig, U. Montag, \"New natural draft\ncooling tower of 200 m of height\", Eng.Struct. 12;24(12):1509-21, 2002.\n[20] Z. Michalewicz, D. B. Fogel, \"How to solve it: modern heuristics\", 2nd\nEd. New York, 2004.","publisher":"World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology","index":"Open Science Index 60, 2011"}