Soil pollution by PAHs in urban soils: a comparison of three European cities

E. Morillo, A.S. Romero, C. Maqueda, L. Madrid, F. Ajmone-Marsan, H. Grcman, Christine Davidson, A.S. Hursthouse, J. Villaverde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of urban soil from three European cities: Glasgow (UK), Torino (Italy) and Ljubljana (Slovenia). Fifteen PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene) were measured in urban soil samples, using harmonised sampling, sample extraction and analyte quantification methods. Although the mean concentration of each PAH in urban soils of each city showed a wide range of values, high levels of contamination were only evident in Glasgow, where the sum of concentrations of 15 PAHs was in the range 1487–51822 μg kg−1, cf. ranges in the other two cities were about ten-fold lower (89.5–4488 μg kg−1). The three predominant PAHs were phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene, with the sum of these compounds about 40% of the total PAH content. These data, together with some special molecular indices based on ratios of selected PAHs, suggest pyrogenic origins, especially motor vehicle exhausts, to be the major sources of PAHs in urban soils of the three cities. The largest concentrations for PAHs were often found in sites close to the historic quarters of the cities. Overall, the different climatic conditions, the organic carbon contents of soil, and the source apportionment were the dominant factors affecting accumulation of PAHs in soil.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1001-1008
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Environmental Monitoring
Volume9
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007

Fingerprint

Environmental Pollution
soil pollution
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
PAH
Soil
fluoranthene
pyrene
soil
phenanthrene
Perylene
comparison
city
Slovenia
Benzo(a)pyrene
Motor Vehicles
naphthalene
Italy
Carbon
organic carbon
fold

Keywords

  • soil pollution
  • contamination
  • polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • PAHs

Cite this

Morillo, E., Romero, A. S., Maqueda, C., Madrid, L., Ajmone-Marsan, F., Grcman, H., ... Villaverde, J. (2007). Soil pollution by PAHs in urban soils: a comparison of three European cities. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 9(9), 1001-1008. https://doi.org/10.1039/B705955H
Morillo, E. ; Romero, A.S. ; Maqueda, C. ; Madrid, L. ; Ajmone-Marsan, F. ; Grcman, H. ; Davidson, Christine ; Hursthouse, A.S. ; Villaverde, J. / Soil pollution by PAHs in urban soils : a comparison of three European cities. In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 2007 ; Vol. 9, No. 9. pp. 1001-1008.
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Morillo, E, Romero, AS, Maqueda, C, Madrid, L, Ajmone-Marsan, F, Grcman, H, Davidson, C, Hursthouse, AS & Villaverde, J 2007, 'Soil pollution by PAHs in urban soils: a comparison of three European cities' Journal of Environmental Monitoring, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 1001-1008. https://doi.org/10.1039/B705955H

Soil pollution by PAHs in urban soils : a comparison of three European cities. / Morillo, E.; Romero, A.S.; Maqueda, C.; Madrid, L.; Ajmone-Marsan, F.; Grcman, H.; Davidson, Christine; Hursthouse, A.S.; Villaverde, J.

In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Vol. 9, No. 9, 2007, p. 1001-1008.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Soil pollution by PAHs in urban soils

T2 - Journal of Environmental Monitoring

AU - Morillo, E.

AU - Romero, A.S.

AU - Maqueda, C.

AU - Madrid, L.

AU - Ajmone-Marsan, F.

AU - Grcman, H.

AU - Davidson, Christine

AU - Hursthouse, A.S.

AU - Villaverde, J.

PY - 2007

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N2 - The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of urban soil from three European cities: Glasgow (UK), Torino (Italy) and Ljubljana (Slovenia). Fifteen PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene) were measured in urban soil samples, using harmonised sampling, sample extraction and analyte quantification methods. Although the mean concentration of each PAH in urban soils of each city showed a wide range of values, high levels of contamination were only evident in Glasgow, where the sum of concentrations of 15 PAHs was in the range 1487–51822 μg kg−1, cf. ranges in the other two cities were about ten-fold lower (89.5–4488 μg kg−1). The three predominant PAHs were phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene, with the sum of these compounds about 40% of the total PAH content. These data, together with some special molecular indices based on ratios of selected PAHs, suggest pyrogenic origins, especially motor vehicle exhausts, to be the major sources of PAHs in urban soils of the three cities. The largest concentrations for PAHs were often found in sites close to the historic quarters of the cities. Overall, the different climatic conditions, the organic carbon contents of soil, and the source apportionment were the dominant factors affecting accumulation of PAHs in soil.

AB - The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of urban soil from three European cities: Glasgow (UK), Torino (Italy) and Ljubljana (Slovenia). Fifteen PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene) were measured in urban soil samples, using harmonised sampling, sample extraction and analyte quantification methods. Although the mean concentration of each PAH in urban soils of each city showed a wide range of values, high levels of contamination were only evident in Glasgow, where the sum of concentrations of 15 PAHs was in the range 1487–51822 μg kg−1, cf. ranges in the other two cities were about ten-fold lower (89.5–4488 μg kg−1). The three predominant PAHs were phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene, with the sum of these compounds about 40% of the total PAH content. These data, together with some special molecular indices based on ratios of selected PAHs, suggest pyrogenic origins, especially motor vehicle exhausts, to be the major sources of PAHs in urban soils of the three cities. The largest concentrations for PAHs were often found in sites close to the historic quarters of the cities. Overall, the different climatic conditions, the organic carbon contents of soil, and the source apportionment were the dominant factors affecting accumulation of PAHs in soil.

KW - soil pollution

KW - contamination

KW - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

KW - PAHs

U2 - 10.1039/B705955H

DO - 10.1039/B705955H

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Morillo E, Romero AS, Maqueda C, Madrid L, Ajmone-Marsan F, Grcman H et al. Soil pollution by PAHs in urban soils: a comparison of three European cities. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 2007;9(9):1001-1008. https://doi.org/10.1039/B705955H