Smoldering remediation of coal-tar-contaminated soil: pilot field tests of STAR

Grant C. Scholes, Jason I. Gerhard, Gavin P. Grant, David W. Major, John E. Vidumsky, Christine Switzer, Jose L. Torero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an emerging, smoldering-based technology for nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) remediation. This work presents the first in situ field evaluation of STAR. Pilot field tests were performed at 3.0 m (shallow test) and 7.9 m (deep test) below ground surface within distinct lithological units contaminated with coal tar at a former industrial facility. Self-sustained smoldering (i.e., after the in-well ignition heater was terminated) was demonstrated below the water table for the first time. The outward propagation of a NAPL smoldering front was mapped, and the NAPL destruction rate was quantified in real time. A total of 3700 kg of coal tar over 12 days in the shallow test and 860 kg over 11 days in the deep test was destroyed; less than 2% of total mass removed was volatilized. Self-sustaining propagation was relatively uniform radially outward in the deep test, achieving a radius of influence of 3.7 m; strong permeability contrasts and installed barriers influenced the front propagation geometry in the shallow test. Reductions in soil hydrocarbon concentrations of 99.3% and 97.3% were achieved in the shallow and deep tests, respectively. Overall, this provides the first field evaluation of STAR and demonstrates that it is effective in situ and under a variety of conditions and provides the information necessary for designing the full-scale site treatment.

LanguageEnglish
Pages14334-14342
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume49
Issue number24
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Nov 2015

Fingerprint

Coal Tar
coal tar
Remediation
remediation
Soils
nonaqueous phase liquid
Liquids
Hydrocarbons
Ignition
Geometry
contaminated soil
test
Water
water table
permeability
hydrocarbon
geometry

Keywords

  • self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR)
  • nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL)
  • coal tar
  • creosote
  • soil contamination
  • smoldering remediation

Cite this

Scholes, G. C., Gerhard, J. I., Grant, G. P., Major, D. W., Vidumsky, J. E., Switzer, C., & Torero, J. L. (2015). Smoldering remediation of coal-tar-contaminated soil: pilot field tests of STAR. Environmental Science and Technology , 49(24), 14334-14342. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b03177
Scholes, Grant C. ; Gerhard, Jason I. ; Grant, Gavin P. ; Major, David W. ; Vidumsky, John E. ; Switzer, Christine ; Torero, Jose L. / Smoldering remediation of coal-tar-contaminated soil : pilot field tests of STAR. In: Environmental Science and Technology . 2015 ; Vol. 49, No. 24. pp. 14334-14342.
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Scholes, GC, Gerhard, JI, Grant, GP, Major, DW, Vidumsky, JE, Switzer, C & Torero, JL 2015, 'Smoldering remediation of coal-tar-contaminated soil: pilot field tests of STAR' Environmental Science and Technology , vol. 49, no. 24, pp. 14334-14342. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b03177

Smoldering remediation of coal-tar-contaminated soil : pilot field tests of STAR. / Scholes, Grant C.; Gerhard, Jason I.; Grant, Gavin P.; Major, David W.; Vidumsky, John E.; Switzer, Christine; Torero, Jose L.

In: Environmental Science and Technology , Vol. 49, No. 24, 02.11.2015, p. 14334-14342.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Smoldering remediation of coal-tar-contaminated soil

T2 - Environmental Science and Technology

AU - Scholes, Grant C.

AU - Gerhard, Jason I.

AU - Grant, Gavin P.

AU - Major, David W.

AU - Vidumsky, John E.

AU - Switzer, Christine

AU - Torero, Jose L.

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KW - coal tar

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