Skin color change in caucasian postmenopausal women predicts summer-winter change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D: findings from the ANSAViD cohort study

Helen M Macdonald, Alexandra Mavroeidi, Lorna A Aucott, Brian L Diffey, William D. Fraser, Anthony D Ormerod, David M Reid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

CONTEXT: UV radiation is responsible for vitamin D synthesis and skin tanning. Longitudinal data relating skin color to vitamin D status are lacking.

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether seasonal facial skin color changes are related to changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D].

DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study (Aberdeen Nutrition Sunlight and Vitamin D) with five visits over 15 months, starting spring 2006 with an additional visit in spring 2008 at a university medical research center in Scotland, 57° N.

PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 314 Caucasian postmenopausal women, age 60-65 yr.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Facial skin color was assessed by skin reflectance and expressed as the individual typology angle (ITA) (higher number indicates paler skin). 25(OH)D was measured by immunoassay.

RESULTS: Most women (43%) reported Fitzpatrick skin type III (always burns, always tans), 32% type II, and 25% type I (always burns, never tans). Overall, mean (sd) ITA in degrees were 36.6 (7.7), 38.2 (6.5), and 42.8 (5.3), respectively, for summer, autumn, and winter (P < 0.001). Linear regression showed that a 5° summer-winter change in ITA, was associated with a 15 nmol/liter change in 25(OH)D (P < 0.001) but did not predict winter 25(OH)D. Reported sunscreen use was associated with higher 25(OH)D. Mean (SD) 25(OH)D (nanomoles per liter) but not skin color was lower for the top body mass index quartile (Q4) compared with the other quartiles (summer: Q1, 57.1(19.9); Q4, 49.7 (20.4); P = 0.010).

CONCLUSIONS: Skin color change between summer and winter predicts seasonal 25(OH)D change. Low vitamin D status in obese women was not due to reduced sun exposure, suggesting that increased requirements or inaccessibility of vitamin D stores may be responsible.

LanguageEnglish
Pages1677-1686
Number of pages10
JournalThe Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Volume96
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2011

Fingerprint

Skin Pigmentation
Vitamin D
Skin
Cohort Studies
Color
Tanning
Sunscreening Agents
Sunlight
Scotland
Solar System
Immunoassay
Observational Studies
Biomedical Research
Linear Models
Body Mass Index
Sun hoods
25-hydroxyvitamin D
Radiation
Nutrition
Linear regression

Keywords

  • absorptiometry, photon
  • aged
  • analysis of variance
  • european continental ancestry group
  • female
  • humans
  • immunoenzyme techniques
  • linear models
  • middle aged
  • postmenopause
  • prospective studies
  • Scotland
  • seasons
  • skin pigmentation/physiology
  • sunlight
  • vitamin D/analogs & derivatives

Cite this

Macdonald, Helen M ; Mavroeidi, Alexandra ; Aucott, Lorna A ; Diffey, Brian L ; Fraser, William D. ; Ormerod, Anthony D ; Reid, David M. / Skin color change in caucasian postmenopausal women predicts summer-winter change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D : findings from the ANSAViD cohort study. 2011 ; Vol. 96, No. 6. pp. 1677-1686.
@article{60b30e734729464b87f40eb48039dd6e,
title = "Skin color change in caucasian postmenopausal women predicts summer-winter change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D: findings from the ANSAViD cohort study",
abstract = "CONTEXT: UV radiation is responsible for vitamin D synthesis and skin tanning. Longitudinal data relating skin color to vitamin D status are lacking.OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether seasonal facial skin color changes are related to changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D].DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study (Aberdeen Nutrition Sunlight and Vitamin D) with five visits over 15 months, starting spring 2006 with an additional visit in spring 2008 at a university medical research center in Scotland, 57° N.PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 314 Caucasian postmenopausal women, age 60-65 yr.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Facial skin color was assessed by skin reflectance and expressed as the individual typology angle (ITA) (higher number indicates paler skin). 25(OH)D was measured by immunoassay.RESULTS: Most women (43{\%}) reported Fitzpatrick skin type III (always burns, always tans), 32{\%} type II, and 25{\%} type I (always burns, never tans). Overall, mean (sd) ITA in degrees were 36.6 (7.7), 38.2 (6.5), and 42.8 (5.3), respectively, for summer, autumn, and winter (P < 0.001). Linear regression showed that a 5° summer-winter change in ITA, was associated with a 15 nmol/liter change in 25(OH)D (P < 0.001) but did not predict winter 25(OH)D. Reported sunscreen use was associated with higher 25(OH)D. Mean (SD) 25(OH)D (nanomoles per liter) but not skin color was lower for the top body mass index quartile (Q4) compared with the other quartiles (summer: Q1, 57.1(19.9); Q4, 49.7 (20.4); P = 0.010).CONCLUSIONS: Skin color change between summer and winter predicts seasonal 25(OH)D change. Low vitamin D status in obese women was not due to reduced sun exposure, suggesting that increased requirements or inaccessibility of vitamin D stores may be responsible.",
keywords = "absorptiometry, photon, aged, analysis of variance, european continental ancestry group, female, humans, immunoenzyme techniques, linear models, middle aged, postmenopause, prospective studies, Scotland, seasons, skin pigmentation/physiology, sunlight, vitamin D/analogs & derivatives",
author = "Macdonald, {Helen M} and Alexandra Mavroeidi and Aucott, {Lorna A} and Diffey, {Brian L} and Fraser, {William D.} and Ormerod, {Anthony D} and Reid, {David M}",
year = "2011",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1210/jc.2010-2032",
language = "English",
volume = "96",
pages = "1677--1686",
number = "6",

}

Skin color change in caucasian postmenopausal women predicts summer-winter change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D : findings from the ANSAViD cohort study. / Macdonald, Helen M; Mavroeidi, Alexandra; Aucott, Lorna A; Diffey, Brian L; Fraser, William D. ; Ormerod, Anthony D; Reid, David M.

Vol. 96, No. 6, 06.2011, p. 1677-1686.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Skin color change in caucasian postmenopausal women predicts summer-winter change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D

T2 - findings from the ANSAViD cohort study

AU - Macdonald, Helen M

AU - Mavroeidi, Alexandra

AU - Aucott, Lorna A

AU - Diffey, Brian L

AU - Fraser, William D.

AU - Ormerod, Anthony D

AU - Reid, David M

PY - 2011/6

Y1 - 2011/6

N2 - CONTEXT: UV radiation is responsible for vitamin D synthesis and skin tanning. Longitudinal data relating skin color to vitamin D status are lacking.OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether seasonal facial skin color changes are related to changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D].DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study (Aberdeen Nutrition Sunlight and Vitamin D) with five visits over 15 months, starting spring 2006 with an additional visit in spring 2008 at a university medical research center in Scotland, 57° N.PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 314 Caucasian postmenopausal women, age 60-65 yr.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Facial skin color was assessed by skin reflectance and expressed as the individual typology angle (ITA) (higher number indicates paler skin). 25(OH)D was measured by immunoassay.RESULTS: Most women (43%) reported Fitzpatrick skin type III (always burns, always tans), 32% type II, and 25% type I (always burns, never tans). Overall, mean (sd) ITA in degrees were 36.6 (7.7), 38.2 (6.5), and 42.8 (5.3), respectively, for summer, autumn, and winter (P < 0.001). Linear regression showed that a 5° summer-winter change in ITA, was associated with a 15 nmol/liter change in 25(OH)D (P < 0.001) but did not predict winter 25(OH)D. Reported sunscreen use was associated with higher 25(OH)D. Mean (SD) 25(OH)D (nanomoles per liter) but not skin color was lower for the top body mass index quartile (Q4) compared with the other quartiles (summer: Q1, 57.1(19.9); Q4, 49.7 (20.4); P = 0.010).CONCLUSIONS: Skin color change between summer and winter predicts seasonal 25(OH)D change. Low vitamin D status in obese women was not due to reduced sun exposure, suggesting that increased requirements or inaccessibility of vitamin D stores may be responsible.

AB - CONTEXT: UV radiation is responsible for vitamin D synthesis and skin tanning. Longitudinal data relating skin color to vitamin D status are lacking.OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether seasonal facial skin color changes are related to changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D].DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study (Aberdeen Nutrition Sunlight and Vitamin D) with five visits over 15 months, starting spring 2006 with an additional visit in spring 2008 at a university medical research center in Scotland, 57° N.PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 314 Caucasian postmenopausal women, age 60-65 yr.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Facial skin color was assessed by skin reflectance and expressed as the individual typology angle (ITA) (higher number indicates paler skin). 25(OH)D was measured by immunoassay.RESULTS: Most women (43%) reported Fitzpatrick skin type III (always burns, always tans), 32% type II, and 25% type I (always burns, never tans). Overall, mean (sd) ITA in degrees were 36.6 (7.7), 38.2 (6.5), and 42.8 (5.3), respectively, for summer, autumn, and winter (P < 0.001). Linear regression showed that a 5° summer-winter change in ITA, was associated with a 15 nmol/liter change in 25(OH)D (P < 0.001) but did not predict winter 25(OH)D. Reported sunscreen use was associated with higher 25(OH)D. Mean (SD) 25(OH)D (nanomoles per liter) but not skin color was lower for the top body mass index quartile (Q4) compared with the other quartiles (summer: Q1, 57.1(19.9); Q4, 49.7 (20.4); P = 0.010).CONCLUSIONS: Skin color change between summer and winter predicts seasonal 25(OH)D change. Low vitamin D status in obese women was not due to reduced sun exposure, suggesting that increased requirements or inaccessibility of vitamin D stores may be responsible.

KW - absorptiometry, photon

KW - aged

KW - analysis of variance

KW - european continental ancestry group

KW - female

KW - humans

KW - immunoenzyme techniques

KW - linear models

KW - middle aged

KW - postmenopause

KW - prospective studies

KW - Scotland

KW - seasons

KW - skin pigmentation/physiology

KW - sunlight

KW - vitamin D/analogs & derivatives

U2 - 10.1210/jc.2010-2032

DO - 10.1210/jc.2010-2032

M3 - Article

VL - 96

SP - 1677

EP - 1686

IS - 6

ER -