Size dependence of core and valence binding energies in Pd nanoparticles: interplay of quantum confinement and coordination reduction

I. Aruna, B. R. Mehta, L. K. Malhotra, S. M. Shivaprasad

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An analysis is given of the electronic structure of Pd nanoparticles synthesized by inert gas evaporation technique. A study of the effect of size on various core and valence electrons in Pd nanoparticles reveals a varied dependence of binding energy of electrons in different electronic levels. The shift in the Pd x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy 4d valence band centroid is more than the core level shift. The results of the present study provide a direct evidence of interplay of quantum confinement (a size effect) and coordination reduction (a surface effect).

Original languageEnglish
Article number064308
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sep 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • nanoparticles
  • electrons
  • x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
  • gold
  • core binding energies

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