A sensitive method for the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genomic DNA that utilizes nanoparticle-enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) measurements of surface enzymatic ligation reactions on DNA microarrays is demonstrated. SNP identification was achieved by using sequence-specific surface reactions of the enzyme Taq DNA ligase, and the presence of ligation products on the DNA microarray elements was detected with SPRI through the hybridization adsorption of complementary oligonucleotides attached to gold nanoparticles. The use of gold nanoparticles increases the sensitivity of the SPRI so that single bases in oligonucleotides can be successfully identified at a concentration of 1 pM. This sensitivity is amply sufficient for performing multiplexed SNP genotyping by using multiple PCR amplicons, and should also allow for the direct detection and identification of SNP sequences from 1 pM unamplified genomic DNA samples with this array-based and label-free SPRI methodology. As a first example of SNP genotyping, three different human genomic DNA samples were screened for a possible point mutation in the BRCA1 gene that is associated with breast cancer.
- single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping
- surface ligation reactions
- nanoparticle-enhanced SPR imaging measurements