The time evolution of a large-amplitude electromagnetic (EM) wave injected vertically into the overhead ionosphere is studied numerically. The EM wave has a carrier frequency of 5 MHz and is modulated as a Gaussian pulse with a width of approximately 0.1 milliseconds and a vacuum amplitude of 1.5 V/m at 50 km. This is a fair representation of a modulated radio wave transmitted from a typical high-power HF broadcast station on the ground. The pulse is propagated through the neutral atmosphere to the critical points of the ionosphere, where the L-O and R-X modes are reflected, and back to the neutral atmosphere. We observe mode conversion of the L-O mode to electrostatic waves, as well as harmonic generation at the turning points of both the R-X and L-O modes, where their amplitudes rise to several times the original ones. The study has relevance for ionospheric interaction experiments in combination with ground-based and satellite or rocket observations.
- radio wave propagation