Sex-associated hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and progesterone have all been shown to modulate immune responses, which can result in differential disease outcomes between males and females, as well as between pregnant and nonpregnant females. Most parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis, usually result in more severe disease in males compared with females. This review highlights our current knowledge concerning the role of sex hormones in modulating leishmaniasis in both clinical settings and experimental disease models.
- sex-associated hormones
- immune responses
- biomedical sciences
Snider, H., Lezama-Davila, C., Alexander, J., & Satoskar, A. R. (2009). Sex hormones and modulation of immunity against leishmaniasis. Neuroimmunomodulation, 16(2), 106-113. https://doi.org/10.1159/000180265