Sequential multiple-step europium ion implantation and annealing of GaN

S. M. C. Miranda, P. R. Edwards, K. P. O'Donnell, M. Boćkowski, E. Alves, I. S. Roqan, A. Vantomme, K. Lorenz

Research output: Contribution to journalConference Contributionpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Sequential multiple Eu ion implantations at low fluence (1×1013 cm-2 at 300 keV) and subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA) steps (30 s at 1000 °C or 1100 °C) were performed on high quality nominally undoped GaN films grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and medium quality GaN:Mg grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE). Compared to samples implanted in a single step, multiple implantation/annealing shows only marginal structural improvement for the MOCVD samples, but a significant improvement of crystal quality and optical activation of Eu was achieved in the HVPE films. This improvement is attributed to the lower crystalline quality of the starting material, which probably enhances the diffusion of defects and acts to facilitate the annealing of implantation damage and the effective incorporation of the Eu ions in the crystal structure. Optical activation of Eu3+ ions in the HVPE samples was further improved by high temperature and high pressure annealing (HTHP) up to 1400 °C. After HTHP annealing the main room temperature cathodo- and photoluminescence line in Mg-doped samples lies at ∼ 619 nm, characteristic of a known Mg-related Eu3+ centre, while after RTA treatment the dominant line lies at ∼ 622 nm, typical for undoped GaN:Eu.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)253-257
Number of pages5
JournalPhysica Status Solidi C
Issue number2
Early online date20 Jan 2014
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2014


  • crystal quality
  • europium
  • gallium nitride
  • ion implantation
  • multiple-step
  • GaN


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