Secondary coking and cracking of shale oil vapors from pyrolysis or hydropyrolysis of a Kentucky Cleveland oil-shale in a 2-stage reactor

S.D. Carter, M. Citiroglu, J.G. Gallacher, Colin Snape, S. Mitchell, C.J. Lafferty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

It is widely recognized that secondary reactions which are mainly associated with minerals during oil shale retorting have a marked influence on the product yields and compositions. To understand these phenomena more clearly, the secondary reactions of shale oil vapours from the pyrolysis (or hydropyrolysis) of Kentucky Cleveland oil shale were examined in a two-stage, fixed-bed reactor in flowing nitrogen or hydrogen at pressures of 0.1-15 MPa. The vapours from pyrolysis (first stage) were passed through a second stage containing combusted shale, upgrading catalyst or neither. Carbon conversion to volatile products in the first stage increased from 49% during thermal pyrolysis to 81% at 15 MPa H2 partial pressure. During thermal pyrolysis, total pressure had only a slight effect on carbon removal from the raw shale and subsequent deposition on to the porous solids in the second stage. Carbon deposition on to the combusted shale in the second stage was reduced to zero at 15 MPa H2 partial pressure. The n-alkane distributions of the oils as determined by gas chromatography clearly demonstrated that higher hydrogen pressure, contact with combusted shale, or both contributed to lower-molecular-weight products.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1455-1458
Number of pages3
JournalFuel
Volume73
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1994

Fingerprint

Shale oil
Oil shale
Coking
Shale
Pyrolysis
Vapors
Carbon
Partial pressure
Hydrogen
Oil shale retorting
Alkanes
Mineral oils
Gas chromatography
Paraffins
Oils
Nitrogen
Molecular weight
Catalysts
Chemical analysis
Hot Temperature

Keywords

  • oil shale
  • oil
  • pyrolysis
  • secondary reactions
  • hydropyrolysis

Cite this

Carter, S.D. ; Citiroglu, M. ; Gallacher, J.G. ; Snape, Colin ; Mitchell, S. ; Lafferty, C.J. / Secondary coking and cracking of shale oil vapors from pyrolysis or hydropyrolysis of a Kentucky Cleveland oil-shale in a 2-stage reactor. In: Fuel. 1994 ; Vol. 73, No. 9. pp. 1455-1458.
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Secondary coking and cracking of shale oil vapors from pyrolysis or hydropyrolysis of a Kentucky Cleveland oil-shale in a 2-stage reactor. / Carter, S.D.; Citiroglu, M.; Gallacher, J.G.; Snape, Colin; Mitchell, S.; Lafferty, C.J.

In: Fuel, Vol. 73, No. 9, 09.1994, p. 1455-1458.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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