This study presents the results of a seasonal municipal solid waste composition campaign, that took place over the period of September 2017 to June 2018 in the capital city of Kazakhstan, Astana. Four sampling campaigns were conducted in order to identify the seasonal variation of municipal solid waste composition, recyclables and energy potential materials, such as combustible fraction, useful for the evaluation of waste-to-energy potential. The combustible fraction was analysed for thermal fuel properties, such as proximate and elemental analyses and gross calorific value. The results over the four different seasons showed that the average recyclable fraction of municipal solid waste on a wet basis of 33.3 wt.% and combustibles fraction was 8.3 wt.%. The largest fraction was the organics (47.2 wt.%), followed by plastic (15.4 wt.%) and paper (12.5 wt.%). Small seasonal variations were observed for organics, paper, plastic and glass fractions. The highest values were found in summer for the organic waste, in spring for paper and plastic and autumn for glass. The recyclables fraction showed an absolute seasonal variation of 5.7% with a peak in the winter season (35.4%) and the combustibles fraction showed a seasonal variation between 8.3 wt.% to 9.4 wt.%. Finally, the average calorific value of the combustible fraction was estimated to be 21.6 MJ kg-1 on a dry basis.
- combustible fraction
- gross calorific value
- Municipal solid waste composition
- refuse derive fuel