Screen-printed stretchable supercapacitors based on tin sulfide-decorated face-mask-derived activated carbon electrodes with high areal energy density

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Abstract

In this work, tin sulfide nanosheets decorated on face-mask-derived activated carbon have been explored as electrode material for electrochemical supercapacitors. A hydrothermal route was employed to grow tin sulfide on the surface and inside of high-surface-area face-mask-derived activated carbon, activated at 850 °C, to produce a hierarchical interconnected porous composite (ACFM-850/TS) structure. The presence of tin sulfide in the porous carbon framework exposed the surface active sites for rapid adsorption/desorption of electrolyte ions and ensured high utilization of the porous carbon surface. Furthermore, the porous ACFM-850 framework prevented the stacking/agglomeration of tin sulfide sheets, thereby enhancing the charge-transport kinetics in the composite electrodes. Benefiting from the synergistic effect of tin sulfide and ACFM-850, the resulting ACFM-850/TS composite exhibited an attractive specific capacitance of 423 F g–1 at a 0.5 A g–1 current density and superior rate capability (71.3% at a 30 A g–1 current density) in a 1.0 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. In addition, we fabricated a planar symmetric interdigitated supercapacitor on a stretchable Spandex fabric using an ACFM-850/TS composite electrode and carboxymethyl cellulose/NaClO4 as a solid-state gel electrolyte employing a scalable screen-printing process. The as-prepared stretchable supercapacitors displayed an ultrahigh energy density of 9.2 μWh cm–2 at a power density of 0.13 mW cm–2. In addition, they exhibited an excellent cyclic stability of 64% even after 10,000 charge–discharge cycles and 42% after 1000 continuous stretch (at 25% stretching)/release cycles. Such screen-printed interdigitated planar supercapacitors with activated carbon composite electrodes and a solid-state gel electrolyte act as promising low-cost energy-storage devices for wearable and flexible integrated electronic devices.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3558-3576
Number of pages19
JournalACS Applied Energy Materials
Volume7
Issue number9
Early online date18 Apr 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 18 Apr 2024

Keywords

  • activated carbon
  • tin sulfide
  • solid-state gel electrolyte
  • stretchable supercapacitor
  • screen printing

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