Scaling-up experiments of smouldering combustion as a remediation technology for contaminated soil

Christine Switzer, Paolo Pironi, Guillermo Rein, Jason I. Gerhard, Jose L. Torero

Research output: Contribution to conferencePoster

Abstract

Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) is a novel, patent-pending process that uses smouldering combustion as a remediation technology for land contaminated with hazardous organic liquids. Compounds such as chlorinated solvents, coal tar and petroleum products, called Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) for their low miscibility with water, have a long history of use in the industrialised world and are among the most ubiquitous of contaminants worldwide. These contaminants are toxic and many are suspected or known carcinogens. Existing remediation technologies are expensive and ineffective at reducing NAPL source zones sufficiently to restore affected water resources to appropriate quality levels. STAR introduces a self-sustaining smouldering reaction within the NAPL pool in the subsurface and allows that reaction to provide all of the post-ignition energy required by the reaction to completely remediate the NAPL source zone in the soil. Results from laboratory and field experiments have been very promising. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated STAR across a wide range of NAPL fuels and focused on coal tar to identify key parameters for successful remediation. Modelling has suggested that STAR efficiency will improve with scale as effects such as heat losses from boundaries become less significant. Observations from field experiments support the modelling theory - significantly lower relative air flow in a smouldering field experiment (330L) led to faster smouldering front propagation than observed in laboratory experiments (1L and 3L). Preliminary emissions monitoring by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has suggested that STAR emissions might be low enough to meet regulatory requirements, but further study is necessary. As emissions are expected to vary with each contaminant, activated carbon filters are being developed and tested in case emissions filtration is necessary. Experiments at all scales have demonstrated that STAR is controllable and self-terminating. Pilot-scale (2500L) field trials are underway to demonstrate STAR on excavated contaminated soil. The materials that will be studied in these trials are manufactured coal tar in coarse sand (which is the same material as used in the laboratory and field experiments) as well as two soils obtained from coal tar contaminated sites. This poster focuses on the scale-up to these field trials, including small scale characterisation, large scale performance, emissions monitoring and post-treatment soil analysis.

Conference

Conference9th Annual International Association of Fire Safety Science
CityKarlsruhe, Germany
Period21/09/0826/09/08

Fingerprint

remediation
combustion
nonaqueous phase liquid
coal tar
experiment
pollutant
contaminated soil
soil analysis
contaminated land
carcinogen
monitoring
FTIR spectroscopy
airflow
modeling
activated carbon
soil
water resource
petroleum
filter
liquid

Keywords

  • smouldering combustion
  • remediation technology
  • contaminated soil
  • civil engineering

Cite this

Switzer, C., Pironi, P., Rein, G., Gerhard, J. I., & Torero, J. L. (2008). Scaling-up experiments of smouldering combustion as a remediation technology for contaminated soil. Poster session presented at 9th Annual International Association of Fire Safety Science, Karlsruhe, Germany, .
Switzer, Christine ; Pironi, Paolo ; Rein, Guillermo ; Gerhard, Jason I. ; Torero, Jose L. / Scaling-up experiments of smouldering combustion as a remediation technology for contaminated soil. Poster session presented at 9th Annual International Association of Fire Safety Science, Karlsruhe, Germany, .
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title = "Scaling-up experiments of smouldering combustion as a remediation technology for contaminated soil",
abstract = "Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) is a novel, patent-pending process that uses smouldering combustion as a remediation technology for land contaminated with hazardous organic liquids. Compounds such as chlorinated solvents, coal tar and petroleum products, called Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) for their low miscibility with water, have a long history of use in the industrialised world and are among the most ubiquitous of contaminants worldwide. These contaminants are toxic and many are suspected or known carcinogens. Existing remediation technologies are expensive and ineffective at reducing NAPL source zones sufficiently to restore affected water resources to appropriate quality levels. STAR introduces a self-sustaining smouldering reaction within the NAPL pool in the subsurface and allows that reaction to provide all of the post-ignition energy required by the reaction to completely remediate the NAPL source zone in the soil. Results from laboratory and field experiments have been very promising. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated STAR across a wide range of NAPL fuels and focused on coal tar to identify key parameters for successful remediation. Modelling has suggested that STAR efficiency will improve with scale as effects such as heat losses from boundaries become less significant. Observations from field experiments support the modelling theory - significantly lower relative air flow in a smouldering field experiment (330L) led to faster smouldering front propagation than observed in laboratory experiments (1L and 3L). Preliminary emissions monitoring by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has suggested that STAR emissions might be low enough to meet regulatory requirements, but further study is necessary. As emissions are expected to vary with each contaminant, activated carbon filters are being developed and tested in case emissions filtration is necessary. Experiments at all scales have demonstrated that STAR is controllable and self-terminating. Pilot-scale (2500L) field trials are underway to demonstrate STAR on excavated contaminated soil. The materials that will be studied in these trials are manufactured coal tar in coarse sand (which is the same material as used in the laboratory and field experiments) as well as two soils obtained from coal tar contaminated sites. This poster focuses on the scale-up to these field trials, including small scale characterisation, large scale performance, emissions monitoring and post-treatment soil analysis.",
keywords = "smouldering combustion, remediation technology, contaminated soil, civil engineering",
author = "Christine Switzer and Paolo Pironi and Guillermo Rein and Gerhard, {Jason I.} and Torero, {Jose L.}",
year = "2008",
language = "English",
note = "9th Annual International Association of Fire Safety Science ; Conference date: 21-09-2008 Through 26-09-2008",

}

Switzer, C, Pironi, P, Rein, G, Gerhard, JI & Torero, JL 2008, 'Scaling-up experiments of smouldering combustion as a remediation technology for contaminated soil' 9th Annual International Association of Fire Safety Science, Karlsruhe, Germany, 21/09/08 - 26/09/08, .

Scaling-up experiments of smouldering combustion as a remediation technology for contaminated soil. / Switzer, Christine; Pironi, Paolo; Rein, Guillermo; Gerhard, Jason I.; Torero, Jose L.

2008. Poster session presented at 9th Annual International Association of Fire Safety Science, Karlsruhe, Germany, .

Research output: Contribution to conferencePoster

TY - CONF

T1 - Scaling-up experiments of smouldering combustion as a remediation technology for contaminated soil

AU - Switzer, Christine

AU - Pironi, Paolo

AU - Rein, Guillermo

AU - Gerhard, Jason I.

AU - Torero, Jose L.

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) is a novel, patent-pending process that uses smouldering combustion as a remediation technology for land contaminated with hazardous organic liquids. Compounds such as chlorinated solvents, coal tar and petroleum products, called Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) for their low miscibility with water, have a long history of use in the industrialised world and are among the most ubiquitous of contaminants worldwide. These contaminants are toxic and many are suspected or known carcinogens. Existing remediation technologies are expensive and ineffective at reducing NAPL source zones sufficiently to restore affected water resources to appropriate quality levels. STAR introduces a self-sustaining smouldering reaction within the NAPL pool in the subsurface and allows that reaction to provide all of the post-ignition energy required by the reaction to completely remediate the NAPL source zone in the soil. Results from laboratory and field experiments have been very promising. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated STAR across a wide range of NAPL fuels and focused on coal tar to identify key parameters for successful remediation. Modelling has suggested that STAR efficiency will improve with scale as effects such as heat losses from boundaries become less significant. Observations from field experiments support the modelling theory - significantly lower relative air flow in a smouldering field experiment (330L) led to faster smouldering front propagation than observed in laboratory experiments (1L and 3L). Preliminary emissions monitoring by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has suggested that STAR emissions might be low enough to meet regulatory requirements, but further study is necessary. As emissions are expected to vary with each contaminant, activated carbon filters are being developed and tested in case emissions filtration is necessary. Experiments at all scales have demonstrated that STAR is controllable and self-terminating. Pilot-scale (2500L) field trials are underway to demonstrate STAR on excavated contaminated soil. The materials that will be studied in these trials are manufactured coal tar in coarse sand (which is the same material as used in the laboratory and field experiments) as well as two soils obtained from coal tar contaminated sites. This poster focuses on the scale-up to these field trials, including small scale characterisation, large scale performance, emissions monitoring and post-treatment soil analysis.

AB - Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) is a novel, patent-pending process that uses smouldering combustion as a remediation technology for land contaminated with hazardous organic liquids. Compounds such as chlorinated solvents, coal tar and petroleum products, called Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) for their low miscibility with water, have a long history of use in the industrialised world and are among the most ubiquitous of contaminants worldwide. These contaminants are toxic and many are suspected or known carcinogens. Existing remediation technologies are expensive and ineffective at reducing NAPL source zones sufficiently to restore affected water resources to appropriate quality levels. STAR introduces a self-sustaining smouldering reaction within the NAPL pool in the subsurface and allows that reaction to provide all of the post-ignition energy required by the reaction to completely remediate the NAPL source zone in the soil. Results from laboratory and field experiments have been very promising. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated STAR across a wide range of NAPL fuels and focused on coal tar to identify key parameters for successful remediation. Modelling has suggested that STAR efficiency will improve with scale as effects such as heat losses from boundaries become less significant. Observations from field experiments support the modelling theory - significantly lower relative air flow in a smouldering field experiment (330L) led to faster smouldering front propagation than observed in laboratory experiments (1L and 3L). Preliminary emissions monitoring by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has suggested that STAR emissions might be low enough to meet regulatory requirements, but further study is necessary. As emissions are expected to vary with each contaminant, activated carbon filters are being developed and tested in case emissions filtration is necessary. Experiments at all scales have demonstrated that STAR is controllable and self-terminating. Pilot-scale (2500L) field trials are underway to demonstrate STAR on excavated contaminated soil. The materials that will be studied in these trials are manufactured coal tar in coarse sand (which is the same material as used in the laboratory and field experiments) as well as two soils obtained from coal tar contaminated sites. This poster focuses on the scale-up to these field trials, including small scale characterisation, large scale performance, emissions monitoring and post-treatment soil analysis.

KW - smouldering combustion

KW - remediation technology

KW - contaminated soil

KW - civil engineering

UR - http://www.eng.uwo.ca/research/restore/publications/Switzer%20et%20al_2009_ES&T_STAR.pdf

UR - http://www.iafss.org/html/karlsruhe/home.htm

UR - http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/fire/posters/2008_IAFSS_Christine_poster.pdf

M3 - Poster

ER -

Switzer C, Pironi P, Rein G, Gerhard JI, Torero JL. Scaling-up experiments of smouldering combustion as a remediation technology for contaminated soil. 2008. Poster session presented at 9th Annual International Association of Fire Safety Science, Karlsruhe, Germany, .