Scalable solvent-free production of liposomes

Swapnil Khadke, Carla B. Roces, Rachel Donaghey, Valeria Giacobbo, Yang Su, Yvonne Perrie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)
59 Downloads (Pure)


Objectives. A major challenge faced with the manufacture of liposomes is the high volumes of organic solvents used and disposed of during manufacturing. Therefore, we have implemented an organic solvent-free production method for drug-loaded liposomes and demonstrated its applicability with both aqueous core loaded and bilayer loaded drugs.
Methods. Liposomes were produced by high-shear mixing dry powder lipids with an aqueous buffer, followed by down-sizing using a Microfluidizer® processor. Liposomes were purified via tangential flow filtration and characterised in terms of size, polydispersity, zeta potential and drug loading.
Key findings. Doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomes can be manufactured using this solvent-free method with particle sizes of 100-110 nm, low PDI (<0.2) and high drug loading (97 - 98%). If required, liposomes can be further down-sized via further microfluidic processing without impacting drug loading. Similar results were achieved with non-PEGylated liposomes. With bilayer loaded amphotericin B liposomes, again liposomes can be prepared within a clinically appropriate size range (100 – 110 nm in size, low PDI) with high drug loading (98 - 100 %).
Conclusions. We apply a simple and scalable solvent-free method for the production of both aqueous core or bilayer drug loaded liposomes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1328-1340
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Issue number10
Early online date16 Jul 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020


  • liposomes
  • manufacturing
  • solvent-free
  • doxorubicin
  • amphotericin B
  • particle size
  • drug loading


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