Scalable and effective multi-level entangled photon states: a promising tool to boost quantum technologies

Stefania Sciara, Piotr Roztocki, Bennet Fischer, Christian Reimer, Luis Romero Cortés, William J. Munro, David J. Moss, Alfonso C. Cino, Lucia Caspani, Michael Kues, José Azaña, Roberto Morandotti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)


Multi-level (qudit) entangled photon states are a key resource for both fundamental physics and advanced applied science, as they can significantly boost the capabilities of novel technologies such as quantum communications, cryptography, sensing, metrology, and computing. The benefits of using photons for advanced applications draw on their unique properties: photons can propagate over long distances while preserving state coherence, and they possess multiple degrees of freedom (such as time and frequency) that allow scalable access to higher dimensional state encoding, all while maintaining low platform footprint and complexity. In the context of out-of-lab use, photon generation and processing through integrated devices and off-the-shelf components are in high demand. Similarly, multi-level entanglement detection must be experimentally practical, i.e., ideally requiring feasible single-qudit projections and high noise tolerance. Here, we focus on multi-level optical Bell and cluster states as a critical resource for quantum technologies, as well as on universal witness operators for their feasible detection and entanglement characterization. Time- and frequency-entangled states are the main platform considered in this context. We review a promising approach for the scalable, cost-effective generation and processing of these states by using integrated quantum frequency combs and fiber-based devices, respectively. We finally report an experimentally practical entanglement identification and characterization technique based on witness operators that is valid for any complex photon state and provides a good compromise between experimental feasibility and noise robustness. The results reported here can pave the way toward boosting the implementation of quantum technologies in integrated and widely accessible photonic platforms.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4447-4465
Number of pages19
Issue number18
Early online date8 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - 3 Dec 2021


  • complex entanglement
  • experimentally feasible entanglement characterization
  • integrated and cost-efficient photonic platforms
  • photon cluster states
  • quantum photonics
  • witness operators


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