Introduction: Resistant strains of bacteria are rapidly emerging with increasing inappropriate use of antibiotics rendering them less efficacious. Self-purchasing of antibiotics particularly for viral infections is a key driver of inappropriate use, especially in lower- and middle-income countries. There is a particular issue in countries such as Pakistan. Consequently, there is a need to assess current rates of self-purchasing especially for reserve antibiotics to guide future policies. Aims: Assess the extent of current antibiotic sales without a prescription in urban areas of Pakistan. Methodology: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in different areas of Punjab, Pakistan using Simulated Client technique. The investigators demanded different predefined antibiotics from WHO AWaRe groups without prescription. Three levels of demand were used to convince the pharmacy staff in order to dispense the antibiotic without a prescription. A data collection form was completed by simulated clients within 15 min of each visit. Results: Overall 353 pharmacies and medical stores were visited out of which 96.9% pharmacies and medical stores dispensed antibiotics without demanding a prescription (82.7% at demand level 1 and 14.2% at demand level 2), with only 3.1% of pharmacies refusing to dispense antibiotics. The most frequently dispensed antibiotic was ciprofloxacin (22.1%). Surprisingly, even the reserve group antibiotics were also dispensed without a prescription. In only 25.2% visits, pharmacy staff guided patients about the use of antibiotics, and in only 11.0% pharmacists enquired about other medication history. Conclusion: Currently, antibiotics are easily acquired without a legitimate prescription in Pakistan. There is a need for strict adherence to regulations combined with a multi-dimensional approach to enhance appropriate dispensing of antibiotics and limit any dispensing of WHO restricted antibiotics without a prescription.
|Number of pages||33|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice|
|Publication status||Published - 3 Aug 2020|
- sale without prescription
- simulated clients