Robotic-assisted 3D bio-printing for repairing bone and cartilage defects through a minimally invasive approach

Julius Lipskas, Kamal Deep, Wei Yao

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20 Citations (Scopus)
37 Downloads (Pure)


There is an unmet need for new techniques and methods of healing critical size tissue defects, by further reduction of invasiveness in implant, cell and tissue-based surgery. This paper presents the development of a new regenerative medicine that combines 3D bio-printing and robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery techniques to meet this need.

We investigated the feasibility of Remote Centre of Motion (RCM) and viscous material extrusion 3D printing. A hypothetical, intra-articular, regenerative medicine-based treatment technique for focal cartilage defects of the knee was used as a potential example of the application of 3D printing in vivo.

The results of this study suggest, that RCM mechanism is feasible with viscous material extrusion 3D printing processes, without a major trade-off in imprint quality.

The achieved printing accuracy at an average dimensional error of 0.06±0.14mm in this new modality of 3D printing is comparable to those described in literature for other types of bioprinting.

Robotic assisted 3D bio-printing demonstrated here is a viable option for focal cartilage defect restoration.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3746
Number of pages9
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 6 Mar 2019


  • 3D bioprinting
  • cartilage defects
  • focal cartilage
  • Remote Centre of Motion (RCM)
  • printing accuracy


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