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Abstract
Steady unidirectional gravitydriven flow of a uniform thin rivulet (i.e. a rivulet with small transverse aspect ratio) of a generalised Newtonian fluid down a vertical planar substrate is considered. The parametric solution for any generalised Newtonian fluid whose viscosity can be expressed as a function of the shear rate, and the explicit solution for any generalised Newtonian fluid whose viscosity can be expressed as a function of the extra stress are obtained. These general solutions are used to describe rivulet flow of Carreau and Ellis fluids, highlighting the similarities and differences between the behaviour of these two fluids. In addition, the general behaviour of rivulets of nearly Newtonian fluids and of rivulets with small or large prescribed flux, as well as the behaviour of rivulets of strongly shearthinning Carreau and Ellis fluids, are also described. It is found that whereas the monotonic dependence of the viscosity of a Carreau fluid on its three nondimensional parameters and of an Ellis fluid on two of its three nondimensional parameters leads to the expected dependence of the behaviour of the rivulet on these parameters (namely that increasing the viscosity of the fluid leads to a larger rivulet), the nonmonotonic dependence of the viscosity of an Ellis fluid on the non dimensional parameter that measures the degree of shear thinning leads to a more complicated dependence of the behaviour of the rivulet on this parameter. In particular, it is also found that when the maximum extra stress in the rivulet is sufficiently large a rivulet of an Ellis fluid in the strongly shearthinning limit in which this parameter becomes large comprises two regions with different viscosities. In the general case of nonzero viscosity in the limit of large extra stress the two regions have different constant viscosities, whereas in the special case of zero viscosity in the limit of large extra stress one region has constant viscosity and the other has a nonconstant powerlaw viscosity, leading to a pluglike velocity profile with large magnitude in the narrow central region of the rivulet.
Original language  English 

Article number  083302 
Number of pages  24 
Journal  Physical Review Fluids 
Volume  3 
Issue number  8 
DOIs  
Publication status  Published  6 Aug 2018 
Keywords
 Newtonian fluid
 viscosity
 Carreau fluids
 Ellis fluids
 rivulets
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 1 Finished

Small particles, big questions: understanding the complex behaviour of nanofluids
1/10/13 → 31/03/16
Project: Research Fellowship