As a result of increasing variability of network impedance, interest in impedance estimation techniques is growing. This review contextualises local impedance estimation techniques by providing a historical prospective on the uses of these techniques, from the early implementations designed to monitor power quality to the latest techniques integrated into converters designed to update the controller with the most recent network information. This is followed by clear and consolidated descriptions, a complete classification and comparison tables of local estimation techniques intended to assist engineers and researchers choose an estimation technique that is suitable to their application. The discussed techniques are then ranked for a range of application priorities such as accuracy, least disruptive to the network, most suitable for wide frequency spectrum estimations and rapidity of estimation. Practical applications of impedance estimation are discussed, such as network characterisation, anti-islanding detection, filter resonance avoidance and controller tuning. To conclude the review, future trends are identified.
- frequency sweep
- pseudo random binary sequence
- P/Q variation
- Kalman filter