Revealing the microstructure and mechanical attributes of pre-heated conditions for Gas Tungsten Arc Welded AISI 1045 steel joints

Muhammad Jawad, Mirza Jahanzaib, Muhammad Asad Ali, Muhammad Umar Farooq, Nadeem Ahmad Mufti, Catalin I. Pruncu, Salman Hussain, Ahmad Wasim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is considered a well-established process in the manufacturing industry. Despite, certain challenges associated with high hardness of heat affected zone and cold cracking susceptibility of joints, are the main barriers for this process to be implemented successfully within high integrity structure. By using a combined procedure of experiments and modelling (response surface methodology (RSM) and multi-objective optimization: multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA)) allows obtaining good enhancement over uniform heating, cooling and the heat-affected zone which enable major progress in obtaining high quality welded parts. Therefore, this research study combines the experiments and modelling in a systematic manner considering for the first type the pre-heated treatment and without- pre-heating conditions of GTAW manufacturing. It leads to optimizing the process parameters of GTAW when manufacturing AISI 1045 medium carbon steel. The effects of critical parameters i.e. welding current: WC, welding speed: WS, and gas flow rate: GFR on the mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness) were investigated and evaluated against the microstructure of weld fracture. The multi-objective genetic algorithm corroborated with experimental observation enables to obtain a maximum UTS of approx. 625 MPa and hardness of 80.19 HRB for preheat condition. The results highlight an improvement in UTS of 0.2% to 6.7% and a decrease in hardness of 0.1% to 21.5% by implementing the preheating condition
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages23
JournalInternational Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 15 May 2021


  • gas tungsten arc welding
  • fractography
  • response surface methodology
  • genetic algorithm
  • ultimate tensile strength
  • hardness


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