Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by using clinoptilolite and bentonite as adsorbents

Vassilis J. Inglezakis, Marinos A. Stylianou, Despoina Gkantzou, Maria D. Loizidou

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163 Citations (Scopus)


In the present study, the ability of natural zeolite clinoptilolite and bentonite (clay) to remove Pb(II) from aqueous solutions has been investigated in batch reactors with a maximum contact time of 120 min. Adsorption tests of Pb(II) were carried out using a solution concentration of 1,036 ppm at initial pH = 4, and solid to liquid ratio of 2 g/100 mL. The effects of agitation speed (0, 100, 200, 500 rpm), temperature (28°C, 45°C, 60°C) and particle size (2.5-5.0 mm, dust) of the minerals were examined. The effect of acidity of the aqueous solution was also examined. Bentonite was found to be more effective for the removal of Pb(II) than clinoptilolite, under the experimental conditions used. The removal of Pb(II) using bentonite reached 100% at ambient temperature and mild agitation (100 rpm), while it was approximately 90% at 60°C without agitation. On the other hand, the highest removal level reached by clinoptilolite was 55%. Clinoptilolite dust is found to be more efficient than granular clinoptilolite. Agitation and temperature affected the uptake of Pb(II), especially in the case of granular clinoptilolite (2.5-5.0 mm). Finally, it can be seen that acidity of the aqueous solution influences the removal of lead by the minerals. The adsorption of lead increases with an increase in pH of the solution from 1 to 4.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)248-256
Number of pages9
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2007


  • bentonite
  • clinoptilolite
  • ion exchange
  • lead
  • zeolites


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