Relativistic properties of a molecule: energy, linear momentum, angular momentum and boost momentum to order 1/c2

Robert P Cameron, J P Cotter

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We give an explicit and general description of the energy, linear momentum, angular momentum and boost momentum of a molecule to order $1/c^2$, where it necessary to take account of kinetic contributions made by the electrons and nuclei as well as electromagnetic contributions made by the intramolecular field. A wealth of interesting subtleties are encountered that are not seen at order $1/c^0$, including relativistic Hall shifts, anomalous velocities and hidden momenta. Some of these have well known analogues in solid state physics.
Original languageEnglish
Article number105101
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2018


  • molecular structures
  • relativistic molecules
  • physical chemistry
  • energy
  • linear momentum
  • angular momentum
  • boost momentum

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