Reforms and initiatives in Scotland in recent years to encourage the prescribing of generic drugs, their influence and implications for other countries

Brian Godman, Iain Bishop, Alexander E Finlayson, Stephen Campbell, Hye-Young Kwon, Marion Bennie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

62 Citations (Scopus)


Scotland has introduced a number of initiatives to enhance the prescribing of low-cost generic drugs versus originators and patent products in a class where these are seen as similar. The objective of this review is to appraise the influence of the various measures on subsequent utilization patterns and expenditure in high-volume classes to provide guidance. This review is principally a narrative review of published studies. The authors' found supply-side measures resulted in generic prices as low as 3% of pre-patent loss prices. Multiple demand-side measures resulted in high international non-proprietary name prescribing, and a considerable increase in prescribing efficiency for the proton pump inhibitors, statins, renin-angiotensin inhibitor drugs and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. There were no specific activities encouraging the prescription of losartan versus other angiotensin receptor blockers or risperidone versus other atypical antipsychotic drugs following generics and no change in their utilization patterns post generics. The authors can conclude multiple measures are needed to change physician prescribing habits. Authorities cannot rely on any 'spillover' effects to affect future prescribing, even in closely related classes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)469-482
Number of pages14
JournalExpert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013


  • attitude of health personnel
  • cost savings
  • cost-benefit analysis
  • drug costs
  • drug prescriptions
  • drugs, generic
  • guideline adherence
  • Health care reform
  • health expenditures
  • health knowledge, attitudes, practice
  • health policy
  • humans
  • physician incentive plans
  • physician's practice patterns
  • policy making
  • practice guidelines as topic
  • scotland

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