Realistic simulation of aerodynamic loading for model testing of floating wind turbines

Alexander H Day, David Clelland, Elif Oguz, Saishuai Dai, José Azcona Armendáriz, Faisal Bouchotrouch, Juan Amate Lopez, Gustavo Sánchez, Gonzalo González Almeria

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution book

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Abstract

The simulation of wind loading for tank testing of floating wind turbines presents a variety of severe challenges. The floating platform naturally responds to wave loadings which are Froude-scaled, whilst the turbine forces respond to aerodynamic loads which are Reynolds-scaled. It is possible to account for Reynolds effects by appropriate distortion of the rotor geometry, nonetheless, construction and operation of a working scale rotor is extremely challenging due to the large size, very light weight, and complex control requirements, while relatively few wave tanks have the ability to generate suitable wind fields.
The current study reviews the approaches used to simulate wind loading on floating wind turbines in wave tanks and describes the deployment of an "software in the loop" (SIL) approach in which the thrust component of the wind load is generated using a high-speed fan located on the model in line with the rotor drivetrain. The six-degree-of-freedom platform motion is measured during the tests, and the aerodynamic thrust related to the instantaneous position and velocity of the platform is calculated in real time using a modified version of the well-known FAST aero-hydro-servo-elastic software code. This calculated thrust is then used to control the fan speed to generate the physical thrust in the model test.
Using this approach it is possible to explore the impact of different wind environment, rotor configurations, and control strategies without the need for a complex model of the rotor, and without generation of wind over the tank. In the present study, the approach is deployed for an innovative shallow water tension-leg platform (TLP) developed by Iberdrola.
The impact of the SIL approach is compared for a variety of wind directions with results generated in two baseline conditions: the conventional case with no wind loading and a simplified case with a constant wind loading. Results are shown for the impact of the wind loading on the platform motions for free oscillation tests, and regular wave RAOs. The challenges of the approach along with the advantages and disadvantages in comparison to other methods for wind load simulation on floating wind turbines are discussed, and the scope for further improvements in the realism of wind load simulation in physical model tests of floating wind turbines is explored.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe 5th International Conference on Advanced Model Measurement Technology for the Maritime Industry (AMT'17)
Place of PublicationGlasgow
PublisherUniversity of Strathclyde
Pages419-432
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2017
EventThe 5th International Conference on Advanced Model Measurement Technology for the Maritime Industry - Glasgow, United Kingdom
Duration: 11 Oct 201713 Oct 2017
Conference number: 5

Conference

ConferenceThe 5th International Conference on Advanced Model Measurement Technology for the Maritime Industry
Abbreviated titleAMT'17
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityGlasgow
Period11/10/1713/10/17

Fingerprint

Wind turbines
Aerodynamics
Testing
Rotors
Fans
Tension-leg platforms
Aerodynamic loads
Turbines
Geometry

Keywords

  • wind loading
  • wind turbines
  • Reynolds effect

Cite this

Day, A. H., Clelland, D., Oguz, E., Dai, S., Azcona Armendáriz, J., Bouchotrouch, F., ... González Almeria, G. (2017). Realistic simulation of aerodynamic loading for model testing of floating wind turbines. In The 5th International Conference on Advanced Model Measurement Technology for the Maritime Industry (AMT'17) (pp. 419-432). Glasgow: University of Strathclyde.
Day, Alexander H ; Clelland, David ; Oguz, Elif ; Dai, Saishuai ; Azcona Armendáriz, José ; Bouchotrouch, Faisal ; Lopez, Juan Amate ; Sánchez, Gustavo ; González Almeria, Gonzalo. / Realistic simulation of aerodynamic loading for model testing of floating wind turbines. The 5th International Conference on Advanced Model Measurement Technology for the Maritime Industry (AMT'17). Glasgow : University of Strathclyde, 2017. pp. 419-432
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Day, AH, Clelland, D, Oguz, E, Dai, S, Azcona Armendáriz, J, Bouchotrouch, F, Lopez, JA, Sánchez, G & González Almeria, G 2017, Realistic simulation of aerodynamic loading for model testing of floating wind turbines. in The 5th International Conference on Advanced Model Measurement Technology for the Maritime Industry (AMT'17). University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, pp. 419-432, The 5th International Conference on Advanced Model Measurement Technology for the Maritime Industry , Glasgow, United Kingdom, 11/10/17.

Realistic simulation of aerodynamic loading for model testing of floating wind turbines. / Day, Alexander H; Clelland, David; Oguz, Elif; Dai, Saishuai; Azcona Armendáriz, José; Bouchotrouch, Faisal; Lopez, Juan Amate; Sánchez, Gustavo; González Almeria, Gonzalo.

The 5th International Conference on Advanced Model Measurement Technology for the Maritime Industry (AMT'17). Glasgow : University of Strathclyde, 2017. p. 419-432.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution book

TY - GEN

T1 - Realistic simulation of aerodynamic loading for model testing of floating wind turbines

AU - Day, Alexander H

AU - Clelland, David

AU - Oguz, Elif

AU - Dai, Saishuai

AU - Azcona Armendáriz, José

AU - Bouchotrouch, Faisal

AU - Lopez, Juan Amate

AU - Sánchez, Gustavo

AU - González Almeria, Gonzalo

PY - 2017/10/11

Y1 - 2017/10/11

N2 - The simulation of wind loading for tank testing of floating wind turbines presents a variety of severe challenges. The floating platform naturally responds to wave loadings which are Froude-scaled, whilst the turbine forces respond to aerodynamic loads which are Reynolds-scaled. It is possible to account for Reynolds effects by appropriate distortion of the rotor geometry, nonetheless, construction and operation of a working scale rotor is extremely challenging due to the large size, very light weight, and complex control requirements, while relatively few wave tanks have the ability to generate suitable wind fields.The current study reviews the approaches used to simulate wind loading on floating wind turbines in wave tanks and describes the deployment of an "software in the loop" (SIL) approach in which the thrust component of the wind load is generated using a high-speed fan located on the model in line with the rotor drivetrain. The six-degree-of-freedom platform motion is measured during the tests, and the aerodynamic thrust related to the instantaneous position and velocity of the platform is calculated in real time using a modified version of the well-known FAST aero-hydro-servo-elastic software code. This calculated thrust is then used to control the fan speed to generate the physical thrust in the model test.Using this approach it is possible to explore the impact of different wind environment, rotor configurations, and control strategies without the need for a complex model of the rotor, and without generation of wind over the tank. In the present study, the approach is deployed for an innovative shallow water tension-leg platform (TLP) developed by Iberdrola.The impact of the SIL approach is compared for a variety of wind directions with results generated in two baseline conditions: the conventional case with no wind loading and a simplified case with a constant wind loading. Results are shown for the impact of the wind loading on the platform motions for free oscillation tests, and regular wave RAOs. The challenges of the approach along with the advantages and disadvantages in comparison to other methods for wind load simulation on floating wind turbines are discussed, and the scope for further improvements in the realism of wind load simulation in physical model tests of floating wind turbines is explored.

AB - The simulation of wind loading for tank testing of floating wind turbines presents a variety of severe challenges. The floating platform naturally responds to wave loadings which are Froude-scaled, whilst the turbine forces respond to aerodynamic loads which are Reynolds-scaled. It is possible to account for Reynolds effects by appropriate distortion of the rotor geometry, nonetheless, construction and operation of a working scale rotor is extremely challenging due to the large size, very light weight, and complex control requirements, while relatively few wave tanks have the ability to generate suitable wind fields.The current study reviews the approaches used to simulate wind loading on floating wind turbines in wave tanks and describes the deployment of an "software in the loop" (SIL) approach in which the thrust component of the wind load is generated using a high-speed fan located on the model in line with the rotor drivetrain. The six-degree-of-freedom platform motion is measured during the tests, and the aerodynamic thrust related to the instantaneous position and velocity of the platform is calculated in real time using a modified version of the well-known FAST aero-hydro-servo-elastic software code. This calculated thrust is then used to control the fan speed to generate the physical thrust in the model test.Using this approach it is possible to explore the impact of different wind environment, rotor configurations, and control strategies without the need for a complex model of the rotor, and without generation of wind over the tank. In the present study, the approach is deployed for an innovative shallow water tension-leg platform (TLP) developed by Iberdrola.The impact of the SIL approach is compared for a variety of wind directions with results generated in two baseline conditions: the conventional case with no wind loading and a simplified case with a constant wind loading. Results are shown for the impact of the wind loading on the platform motions for free oscillation tests, and regular wave RAOs. The challenges of the approach along with the advantages and disadvantages in comparison to other methods for wind load simulation on floating wind turbines are discussed, and the scope for further improvements in the realism of wind load simulation in physical model tests of floating wind turbines is explored.

KW - wind loading

KW - wind turbines

KW - Reynolds effect

UR - https://www.amt17.org.uk/

M3 - Conference contribution book

SP - 419

EP - 432

BT - The 5th International Conference on Advanced Model Measurement Technology for the Maritime Industry (AMT'17)

PB - University of Strathclyde

CY - Glasgow

ER -

Day AH, Clelland D, Oguz E, Dai S, Azcona Armendáriz J, Bouchotrouch F et al. Realistic simulation of aerodynamic loading for model testing of floating wind turbines. In The 5th International Conference on Advanced Model Measurement Technology for the Maritime Industry (AMT'17). Glasgow: University of Strathclyde. 2017. p. 419-432