Real-time measurement and interpretation of the conductivity and pH of precipitation samples

I J Beverland, M R Heal, J M Crowther, M S N Srinivas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A microprocessor-based acid rain monitor was used to make real-time measurements of conductivity and pH of rainwater within individual storms. The automated measurements were compared with laboratory analyses of a subset of the samples taken. The laboratory measurements tended to overestimate the pH because of temperature induced changes in dissociation and Henry's Law constants affecting ionic compounds in the rainwater. The measurement artefact due to these effects may result in average hydrogen ion concentrations being underestimated by approximately 10 to 15% at UK sites. The greatest systematic discrepancies would be anticipated at highly polluted sites and during low temperature acidic episodes. The concept of a rainwater acid fraction was investigated and found to be useful for quality control and interpretative purposes. The field measurement of conductivity of low ionic strength samples was slightly lower than the corresponding laboratory measurement, possibly caused by limited resolution of the conductivity probe or dissolution of fine particulate material.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)325-344
Number of pages20
JournalWater, Air, and Soil Pollution
Volume98
Issue number3-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1997

Fingerprint

Precipitation (meteorology)
Time measurement
rainwater
conductivity
acid rain
Acid Rain
quality control
artifact
pH
Acid rain
dissolution
probe
hydrogen
Ionic strength
ion
acid
Quality control
Microprocessor chips
Dissolution
laboratory

Keywords

  • acid rain
  • acid deposition
  • acid fraction
  • precipitation pH
  • acidity
  • rainwater
  • rain
  • conductivity

Cite this

Beverland, I J ; Heal, M R ; Crowther, J M ; Srinivas, M S N . / Real-time measurement and interpretation of the conductivity and pH of precipitation samples. In: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution . 1997 ; Vol. 98, No. 3-4. pp. 325-344.
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abstract = "A microprocessor-based acid rain monitor was used to make real-time measurements of conductivity and pH of rainwater within individual storms. The automated measurements were compared with laboratory analyses of a subset of the samples taken. The laboratory measurements tended to overestimate the pH because of temperature induced changes in dissociation and Henry's Law constants affecting ionic compounds in the rainwater. The measurement artefact due to these effects may result in average hydrogen ion concentrations being underestimated by approximately 10 to 15{\%} at UK sites. The greatest systematic discrepancies would be anticipated at highly polluted sites and during low temperature acidic episodes. The concept of a rainwater acid fraction was investigated and found to be useful for quality control and interpretative purposes. The field measurement of conductivity of low ionic strength samples was slightly lower than the corresponding laboratory measurement, possibly caused by limited resolution of the conductivity probe or dissolution of fine particulate material.",
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Real-time measurement and interpretation of the conductivity and pH of precipitation samples. / Beverland, I J ; Heal, M R ; Crowther, J M ; Srinivas, M S N .

In: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution , Vol. 98, No. 3-4, 09.1997, p. 325-344.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Real-time measurement and interpretation of the conductivity and pH of precipitation samples

AU - Beverland, I J

AU - Heal, M R

AU - Crowther, J M

AU - Srinivas, M S N

PY - 1997/9

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AB - A microprocessor-based acid rain monitor was used to make real-time measurements of conductivity and pH of rainwater within individual storms. The automated measurements were compared with laboratory analyses of a subset of the samples taken. The laboratory measurements tended to overestimate the pH because of temperature induced changes in dissociation and Henry's Law constants affecting ionic compounds in the rainwater. The measurement artefact due to these effects may result in average hydrogen ion concentrations being underestimated by approximately 10 to 15% at UK sites. The greatest systematic discrepancies would be anticipated at highly polluted sites and during low temperature acidic episodes. The concept of a rainwater acid fraction was investigated and found to be useful for quality control and interpretative purposes. The field measurement of conductivity of low ionic strength samples was slightly lower than the corresponding laboratory measurement, possibly caused by limited resolution of the conductivity probe or dissolution of fine particulate material.

KW - acid rain

KW - acid deposition

KW - acid fraction

KW - precipitation pH

KW - acidity

KW - rainwater

KW - rain

KW - conductivity

U2 - 10.1023/A:1026407027848

DO - 10.1023/A:1026407027848

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VL - 98

SP - 325

EP - 344

JO - Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

JF - Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

SN - 0049-6979

IS - 3-4

ER -