Raindrop erosion of composite materials: some views on the effect of bending stress on erosion mechanisms

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This paper represents the investigation of rain erosion on wind turbine blade materials under load in the simulation of onshore and offshore environmental conditions. The experimental work was carried out on a whirling arm rig with the material under a static 3 point bend to simulate large multi-megawatt wind turbine blades flexing during operation. This experiment was run with both fresh water and salt water to simulate onshore and offshore turbines. The results showed that the effects of a pre-stress on the samples resulted in a higher degradation rate following rain drop erosion. The microscopic analysis of the samples exposed to pre-stress identified distinctive surface features which has been termed a surface impact circular deformation. These features showed signs of cracking which enhanced the erosion rate. The pre-stressed samples also encountered a larger crossover in erosive mechanisms of abrasion and direct impacts; this was theorised to be due to the material being close to its yield stress and more likely to plastically deform.

LanguageEnglish
Article number45
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion
Volume5
Issue number2
Early online date2 Apr 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2019

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Erosion
Wind turbines
Turbomachine blades
Rain
Composite materials
Saline water
Abrasion
Yield stress
Turbines
Degradation
Water
Experiments

Keywords

  • wind energy
  • wind turbines
  • erosion
  • rain erosion
  • droplet impact
  • wear maps

Cite this

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title = "Raindrop erosion of composite materials: some views on the effect of bending stress on erosion mechanisms",
abstract = "This paper represents the investigation of rain erosion on wind turbine blade materials under load in the simulation of onshore and offshore environmental conditions. The experimental work was carried out on a whirling arm rig with the material under a static 3 point bend to simulate large multi-megawatt wind turbine blades flexing during operation. This experiment was run with both fresh water and salt water to simulate onshore and offshore turbines. The results showed that the effects of a pre-stress on the samples resulted in a higher degradation rate following rain drop erosion. The microscopic analysis of the samples exposed to pre-stress identified distinctive surface features which has been termed a surface impact circular deformation. These features showed signs of cracking which enhanced the erosion rate. The pre-stressed samples also encountered a larger crossover in erosive mechanisms of abrasion and direct impacts; this was theorised to be due to the material being close to its yield stress and more likely to plastically deform.",
keywords = "wind energy, wind turbines, erosion, rain erosion, droplet impact, wear maps",
author = "Kieran Pugh and Ghulam Rasool and Stack, {Margaret M.}",
year = "2019",
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AU - Pugh, Kieran

AU - Rasool, Ghulam

AU - Stack, Margaret M.

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N2 - This paper represents the investigation of rain erosion on wind turbine blade materials under load in the simulation of onshore and offshore environmental conditions. The experimental work was carried out on a whirling arm rig with the material under a static 3 point bend to simulate large multi-megawatt wind turbine blades flexing during operation. This experiment was run with both fresh water and salt water to simulate onshore and offshore turbines. The results showed that the effects of a pre-stress on the samples resulted in a higher degradation rate following rain drop erosion. The microscopic analysis of the samples exposed to pre-stress identified distinctive surface features which has been termed a surface impact circular deformation. These features showed signs of cracking which enhanced the erosion rate. The pre-stressed samples also encountered a larger crossover in erosive mechanisms of abrasion and direct impacts; this was theorised to be due to the material being close to its yield stress and more likely to plastically deform.

AB - This paper represents the investigation of rain erosion on wind turbine blade materials under load in the simulation of onshore and offshore environmental conditions. The experimental work was carried out on a whirling arm rig with the material under a static 3 point bend to simulate large multi-megawatt wind turbine blades flexing during operation. This experiment was run with both fresh water and salt water to simulate onshore and offshore turbines. The results showed that the effects of a pre-stress on the samples resulted in a higher degradation rate following rain drop erosion. The microscopic analysis of the samples exposed to pre-stress identified distinctive surface features which has been termed a surface impact circular deformation. These features showed signs of cracking which enhanced the erosion rate. The pre-stressed samples also encountered a larger crossover in erosive mechanisms of abrasion and direct impacts; this was theorised to be due to the material being close to its yield stress and more likely to plastically deform.

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KW - rain erosion

KW - droplet impact

KW - wear maps

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