Quantum jumps of light recording the birth and death of a photon in a cavity

Sebastien Gleyzes, Stefan Kuhr, Christine Guerlin, Julien Bernu, Samuel Deleglise, Ulrich Busk Hoff, Michel Brune, Jean-Michel Raimond, Serge Haroche

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

327 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A microscopic quantum system under continuous observation exhibits at random times sudden jumps between its states. The detection of this quantum feature requires a quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement(1-3) repeated many times during the system's evolution. Whereas quantum jumps of trapped massive particles ( electrons, ions or molecules(4-8)) have been observed, this has proved more challenging for light quanta. Standard photodetectors absorb light and are thus unable to detect the same photon twice. It is therefore necessary to use a transparent counter that can 'see' photons without destroying them(3). Moreover, the light needs to be stored for durations much longer than the QND detection time. Here we report an experiment in which we fulfil these challenging conditions and observe quantum jumps in the photon number. Microwave photons are stored in a superconducting cavity for times up to half a second, and are repeatedly probed by a stream of non-absorbing atoms. An atom interferometer measures the atomic dipole phase shift induced by the non-resonant cavity field, so that the final atom state reveals directly the presence of a single photon in the cavity. Sequences of hundreds of atoms, highly correlated in the same state, are interrupted by sudden state switchings. These telegraphic signals record the birth, life and death of individual photons. Applying a similar QND procedure to mesoscopic fields with tens of photons should open new perspectives for the exploration of the quantum-to-classical boundary(9,10).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)297-300
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume446
Issue number7133
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2007

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death
recording
cavities
photons
atoms
photometers
counters
phase shift
interferometers
dipoles
microwaves
molecules
ions
electrons

Keywords

  • quantum jumps
  • light recording
  • birth and death
  • photon
  • cavity
  • quantum non-demolition measurement
  • QND

Cite this

Gleyzes, S., Kuhr, S., Guerlin, C., Bernu, J., Deleglise, S., Hoff, U. B., ... Haroche, S. (2007). Quantum jumps of light recording the birth and death of a photon in a cavity. Nature, 446(7133), 297-300. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05589
Gleyzes, Sebastien ; Kuhr, Stefan ; Guerlin, Christine ; Bernu, Julien ; Deleglise, Samuel ; Hoff, Ulrich Busk ; Brune, Michel ; Raimond, Jean-Michel ; Haroche, Serge. / Quantum jumps of light recording the birth and death of a photon in a cavity. In: Nature. 2007 ; Vol. 446, No. 7133. pp. 297-300.
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Gleyzes, S, Kuhr, S, Guerlin, C, Bernu, J, Deleglise, S, Hoff, UB, Brune, M, Raimond, J-M & Haroche, S 2007, 'Quantum jumps of light recording the birth and death of a photon in a cavity', Nature, vol. 446, no. 7133, pp. 297-300. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05589

Quantum jumps of light recording the birth and death of a photon in a cavity. / Gleyzes, Sebastien; Kuhr, Stefan; Guerlin, Christine; Bernu, Julien; Deleglise, Samuel; Hoff, Ulrich Busk; Brune, Michel; Raimond, Jean-Michel; Haroche, Serge.

In: Nature, Vol. 446, No. 7133, 15.03.2007, p. 297-300.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - A microscopic quantum system under continuous observation exhibits at random times sudden jumps between its states. The detection of this quantum feature requires a quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement(1-3) repeated many times during the system's evolution. Whereas quantum jumps of trapped massive particles ( electrons, ions or molecules(4-8)) have been observed, this has proved more challenging for light quanta. Standard photodetectors absorb light and are thus unable to detect the same photon twice. It is therefore necessary to use a transparent counter that can 'see' photons without destroying them(3). Moreover, the light needs to be stored for durations much longer than the QND detection time. Here we report an experiment in which we fulfil these challenging conditions and observe quantum jumps in the photon number. Microwave photons are stored in a superconducting cavity for times up to half a second, and are repeatedly probed by a stream of non-absorbing atoms. An atom interferometer measures the atomic dipole phase shift induced by the non-resonant cavity field, so that the final atom state reveals directly the presence of a single photon in the cavity. Sequences of hundreds of atoms, highly correlated in the same state, are interrupted by sudden state switchings. These telegraphic signals record the birth, life and death of individual photons. Applying a similar QND procedure to mesoscopic fields with tens of photons should open new perspectives for the exploration of the quantum-to-classical boundary(9,10).

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Gleyzes S, Kuhr S, Guerlin C, Bernu J, Deleglise S, Hoff UB et al. Quantum jumps of light recording the birth and death of a photon in a cavity. Nature. 2007 Mar 15;446(7133):297-300. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05589