Geochemical and isotopic monitoring allows determination of CO2 presence in the subsurface through the sampling of produced fluids and gases at production and/or monitoring wells. This is demonstrated by data from 22 months of monitoring at the Pembina Cardium CO2 Monitoring Pilot in central Alberta, Canada. Eight wells centered around two CO2 injectors were sampled monthly between February 2005 and February 2007. Stable isotope analyses of the samples revealed that changes in the δ13CCO2 values in produced gas as well as changes in the δ18O values of the produced fluids indicate CO2 presence and identify trapping mechanisms at select production wells. Using equilibrium isotope exchange relationships and CO2 solubility calculations, fluid and gas saturations in the pore space in excess of that occupied by oil were calculated. We demonstrate that stable isotope measurements on produced fluids and gases at the Pembina Cardium CO2 storage site can be used to determine both qualitatively and quantitatively the presence of CO2 around the observation well, given that the injected CO2 is isotopically distinct.
- oxygen isotope ratios
- pore-space saturation