In this experimental study, we measured the force needed to puncture the liver (low elastin) and the spleen (high elastin). The surface displacement preceding puncture was also measured. These data are relevant to an understanding of surgical technique and are essential to the development of electronic surgical simulators. Controlled puncture experiments were performed on intact organs harvested from pigs and sheep, as well as on their surface capsules following removal and suspension at zero strain and at three increasing levels of prestrain. The biomechanical data were compared with information obtained from histological studies. The spleen has a higher puncture force than the liver and suffers greater displacement before puncture (p < 0.05). Prestrain decreases displacement before puncture (p < 0.05) but has no effect on puncture force. The higher puncture force and displacement of spleen, as compared with liver, is probably due to its higher elastin content.
- puncture forces
- surgical simulators