Pressure-dependent EPANET extension: pressure-dependent demands

Tiku Tanyimboh, Calvin Siew

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution book


In water distribution networks (WDNs), the available flow at a demand node is dependent on the pressure at that node. When a network is lacking in pressure, not all consumer demands will be met in full. In this context, the assumption that all demands are fully satisfied regardless of the pressure in the system becomes unreasonable and represents the main limitation of the conventional demand driven analysis (DDA) approach to WDS modelling. A realistic depiction of the network performance can only be attained by considering demands to be pressure dependent. This paper presents an extension of the renowned DDA based hydraulic simulator EPANET 2 to incorporate pressure‐dependent demands. This extension is termed “EPANET‐PDX” (pressure‐dependent extension) herein. The utilization of a continuous nodal pressure‐flow function coupled with a line search and backtracking procedure greatly facilitate the algorithm's convergence rate and robustness. Simulations of real life networks consisting of multiple sources, pipes, valves and pumps were successfully executed and results are presented herein. Excellent modelling performance was achieved for analysing both normal and pressure deficient conditions of the WDNs.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication12th International Conference on Water Distribution Systems Analysis
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2010
Event12th International Conference on Water Distribution Systems Analysis - Tucson, Arizona, United States
Duration: 12 Sept 201015 Sept 2010


Conference12th International Conference on Water Distribution Systems Analysis
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityTucson, Arizona


  • pressure-dependent demand
  • water distribution systems


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