Pressure-dependent EPANET extension

Calvin Siew, Tiku Tanyimboh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)
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In water distribution systems (WDSs), the available flow at a demand node is dependent on the pressure at that node. When a network is lacking in pressure, not all consumer demands will be met in full. In this context, the assumption that all demands are fully satisfied regardless of the pressure in the system becomes unreasonable and represents the main limitation of the conventional demand driven analysis (DDA) approach to WDS modelling. A realistic depiction of the network performance can only be attained by considering demands to be pressure dependent. This paper presents an extension of the renowned DDA based hydraulic simulator EPANET 2 to incorporate pressure-dependent demands. This extension is termed “EPANET-PDX” (pressure-dependent extension) herein. The utilization of a continuous nodal pressure-flow function coupled with a line search and backtracking procedure greatly enhance the algorithm’s convergence rate and robustness. Simulations of real life networks consisting of multiple sources, pipes, valves and pumps were successfully executed and results are presented herein. Excellent modelling performance was achieved for analysing both normal and pressure deficient conditions of the WDSs. Detailed computational efficiency results of EPANET-PDX with reference to EPANET 2 are included as well.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1477-1498
Number of pages22
JournalWater Resources Management
Issue number6
Early online date14 Jan 2012
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012


  • demand-driven analysis – Head-dependent modelling – head-flow relationship
  • pressure-dependent demand
  • pressure-deficient water distribution system
  • EPANET extension
  • demand-driven analysis
  • head-flow relationship
  • head-dependent modelling

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