Predicting corrosion rates for onshore oil and gas pipelines

J.M. Race, L. Stanley, S.J. Dawson, S. Kariyawasam

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

One of the requirements of a comprehensive pipeline Integrity Management Plan (IMP) is the establishment of safe and cost effective re-assessment intervals for the chosen assessment method, either Direct Assessment (DA), In-Line Inspection (ILI) or hydrotesting. For pipelines where the major threat is external or internal corrosion, the determination of an appropriate re-inspection interval requires the estimation of realistic corrosion growth rates. The Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS 2005) estimate that the ability to accurately estimate corrosion rates may save pipeline companies more than $100M/year through reduced maintenance and accident avoidance costs. Unlike internal corrosion, which occurs in a closed system, the rate of the external corrosion reaction is influenced by a number of factors including the water content of the soil, the soluble salts present, the pH of the corrosion environment and the degree of oxygenation. Therefore the prediction of external rates is complex and there is currently no method for estimating corrosion rates using either empirical or mechanistic equations. This paper describes a scoring model that has been developed to estimate external corrosion growth rates for pipelines where rates cannot be estimated using more conventional methods i.e., from repeat in-line inspection data. The model considers the effect of the different variables that contribute to external corrosion and ranks them according to their effect on corrosion growth rate to produce a corrosion rate score. The resulting score is then linked to a corrosion rate database to obtain an estimated corrosion rate. The methodology has been validated by linking the calculated corrosion rate scores to known corrosion rate distributions that have been measured by comparison of the results from multiple in-line inspection runs. The paper goes on to illustrate how the estimated corrosion rates can be used for the establishment of reassessment intervals for DA, ILI and hydrotesting, comparing the benefits of this approach with current industry recommended practice and guidance.

Conference

Conference2006 6th International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2006
Abbreviated titleIPC 2006
CountryCanada
CityCalgary, Alberta
Period25/09/0629/09/06

Fingerprint

Gas pipelines
Corrosion rate
Corrosion
Pipelines
Inspection
Oxygenation
Oils
Water content
Costs
Industry
Accidents
Salts
Soils

Keywords

  • corrosion growth rates
  • integrity management plan (IMP)
  • internal corrosion
  • oil and gas pipelines
  • pipeline Safety
  • accident prevention
  • gas pipelines
  • mathematical models
  • parameter estimation
  • pipeline codes
  • corrosion rate

Cite this

Race, J. M., Stanley, L., Dawson, S. J., & Kariyawasam, S. (2007). Predicting corrosion rates for onshore oil and gas pipelines. 385-395. Paper presented at 2006 6th International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2006, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2006-10261
Race, J.M. ; Stanley, L. ; Dawson, S.J. ; Kariyawasam, S. / Predicting corrosion rates for onshore oil and gas pipelines. Paper presented at 2006 6th International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2006, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.11 p.
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abstract = "One of the requirements of a comprehensive pipeline Integrity Management Plan (IMP) is the establishment of safe and cost effective re-assessment intervals for the chosen assessment method, either Direct Assessment (DA), In-Line Inspection (ILI) or hydrotesting. For pipelines where the major threat is external or internal corrosion, the determination of an appropriate re-inspection interval requires the estimation of realistic corrosion growth rates. The Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS 2005) estimate that the ability to accurately estimate corrosion rates may save pipeline companies more than $100M/year through reduced maintenance and accident avoidance costs. Unlike internal corrosion, which occurs in a closed system, the rate of the external corrosion reaction is influenced by a number of factors including the water content of the soil, the soluble salts present, the pH of the corrosion environment and the degree of oxygenation. Therefore the prediction of external rates is complex and there is currently no method for estimating corrosion rates using either empirical or mechanistic equations. This paper describes a scoring model that has been developed to estimate external corrosion growth rates for pipelines where rates cannot be estimated using more conventional methods i.e., from repeat in-line inspection data. The model considers the effect of the different variables that contribute to external corrosion and ranks them according to their effect on corrosion growth rate to produce a corrosion rate score. The resulting score is then linked to a corrosion rate database to obtain an estimated corrosion rate. The methodology has been validated by linking the calculated corrosion rate scores to known corrosion rate distributions that have been measured by comparison of the results from multiple in-line inspection runs. The paper goes on to illustrate how the estimated corrosion rates can be used for the establishment of reassessment intervals for DA, ILI and hydrotesting, comparing the benefits of this approach with current industry recommended practice and guidance.",
keywords = "corrosion growth rates, integrity management plan (IMP), internal corrosion, oil and gas pipelines, pipeline Safety, accident prevention, gas pipelines, mathematical models, parameter estimation, pipeline codes, corrosion rate",
author = "J.M. Race and L. Stanley and S.J. Dawson and S. Kariyawasam",
note = "ASME B31.8S (2004) Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines, ASME Code for Pressure Piping, 2004Dawson, S. J., Race, J. M. Peet, S. and Krishnamurthy, R (2001) 'Pipeline Corrosion Management', CORROSION/2001, Paper No. 1627, (Houston, TX: NACE International, March 2001)Gu, B., Kania, R., Sharma, S., Gao, M., (2002) Approach to Assessment of Corrosion Growth in Pipelines, pp. IPC02-27263. , Calgary, Canada, September 29-October 3; Gu, B., Kania, R., Gao, M., Probabilistic-Based Corrosion Assessment for Pipeline Integrity (2004) Corrosion NACExpo 2004, 59th Annual Conference, , New Orleans, USA, Paper No. 04164; Kariyawasam, S., Colquhoun, I., (2005) Progressive Management and Engineering Evaluation of Pipeline Integrity, , Paper No. 05159 Corrosion 2005, NACE International, Houston; Kirkwood, M.G., Karam, M., A Scheme for Setting Pipeline Repair, Maintenance and Inspection Priorities (1994) Pipeline Risk Assessment, Rehabilitation and Repair Conference, , September 12-15; NACE RP0502 (2002) Standard Recommended Practice, Pipeline External Corrosion Direct Assessment Methodology, Item No. 21097, NACE 2002(2005), http://primis.phmsa.dot.gov/matrix, OPSPeabody, A.W.(2001) 'Peabody's Control of Pipeline Corrosion', 2 nd Edition Ed. Bianchetti, R.L., Pub. NACE International 2001Simon-Thomas, M.J.J., Prager, L.H., Voermans, C.V.M. Pots, B.P. and Rippon, I.J. (2002) 'Deterministic Pipeline Integrity Assessment to Optimise Corrosion Control and Reduce Cost', CORROSION/2002, Paper No.02075, Denver, Colorado, April 2002Sofos, P., Race, J.M., Dawson, S.J., Experience in the Prediction of Corrosion Growth Rates in Oil and Gas Pipelines (2004) 4th International Conference on Pipeline Technology, , Ostend, Belgium; Stanley, L.M. and Jones, B.L. (2004) 'Microbe-assisted External Corrosion in Oil and Pipelines', Pipeline World, Issue 4, August 2004, p5-10A4 - ASME, International Petroleum Technology Institute, IPIT; 2006 6th International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2006, IPC 2006 ; Conference date: 25-09-2006 Through 29-09-2006",
year = "2007",
doi = "10.1115/IPC2006-10261",
language = "English",
pages = "385--395",

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Race, JM, Stanley, L, Dawson, SJ & Kariyawasam, S 2007, 'Predicting corrosion rates for onshore oil and gas pipelines' Paper presented at 2006 6th International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2006, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 25/09/06 - 29/09/06, pp. 385-395. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2006-10261

Predicting corrosion rates for onshore oil and gas pipelines. / Race, J.M.; Stanley, L.; Dawson, S.J.; Kariyawasam, S.

2007. 385-395 Paper presented at 2006 6th International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2006, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

TY - CONF

T1 - Predicting corrosion rates for onshore oil and gas pipelines

AU - Race, J.M.

AU - Stanley, L.

AU - Dawson, S.J.

AU - Kariyawasam, S.

N1 - ASME B31.8S (2004) Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines, ASME Code for Pressure Piping, 2004Dawson, S. J., Race, J. M. Peet, S. and Krishnamurthy, R (2001) 'Pipeline Corrosion Management', CORROSION/2001, Paper No. 1627, (Houston, TX: NACE International, March 2001)Gu, B., Kania, R., Sharma, S., Gao, M., (2002) Approach to Assessment of Corrosion Growth in Pipelines, pp. IPC02-27263. , Calgary, Canada, September 29-October 3; Gu, B., Kania, R., Gao, M., Probabilistic-Based Corrosion Assessment for Pipeline Integrity (2004) Corrosion NACExpo 2004, 59th Annual Conference, , New Orleans, USA, Paper No. 04164; Kariyawasam, S., Colquhoun, I., (2005) Progressive Management and Engineering Evaluation of Pipeline Integrity, , Paper No. 05159 Corrosion 2005, NACE International, Houston; Kirkwood, M.G., Karam, M., A Scheme for Setting Pipeline Repair, Maintenance and Inspection Priorities (1994) Pipeline Risk Assessment, Rehabilitation and Repair Conference, , September 12-15; NACE RP0502 (2002) Standard Recommended Practice, Pipeline External Corrosion Direct Assessment Methodology, Item No. 21097, NACE 2002(2005), http://primis.phmsa.dot.gov/matrix, OPSPeabody, A.W.(2001) 'Peabody's Control of Pipeline Corrosion', 2 nd Edition Ed. Bianchetti, R.L., Pub. NACE International 2001Simon-Thomas, M.J.J., Prager, L.H., Voermans, C.V.M. Pots, B.P. and Rippon, I.J. (2002) 'Deterministic Pipeline Integrity Assessment to Optimise Corrosion Control and Reduce Cost', CORROSION/2002, Paper No.02075, Denver, Colorado, April 2002Sofos, P., Race, J.M., Dawson, S.J., Experience in the Prediction of Corrosion Growth Rates in Oil and Gas Pipelines (2004) 4th International Conference on Pipeline Technology, , Ostend, Belgium; Stanley, L.M. and Jones, B.L. (2004) 'Microbe-assisted External Corrosion in Oil and Pipelines', Pipeline World, Issue 4, August 2004, p5-10A4 - ASME, International Petroleum Technology Institute, IPIT

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N2 - One of the requirements of a comprehensive pipeline Integrity Management Plan (IMP) is the establishment of safe and cost effective re-assessment intervals for the chosen assessment method, either Direct Assessment (DA), In-Line Inspection (ILI) or hydrotesting. For pipelines where the major threat is external or internal corrosion, the determination of an appropriate re-inspection interval requires the estimation of realistic corrosion growth rates. The Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS 2005) estimate that the ability to accurately estimate corrosion rates may save pipeline companies more than $100M/year through reduced maintenance and accident avoidance costs. Unlike internal corrosion, which occurs in a closed system, the rate of the external corrosion reaction is influenced by a number of factors including the water content of the soil, the soluble salts present, the pH of the corrosion environment and the degree of oxygenation. Therefore the prediction of external rates is complex and there is currently no method for estimating corrosion rates using either empirical or mechanistic equations. This paper describes a scoring model that has been developed to estimate external corrosion growth rates for pipelines where rates cannot be estimated using more conventional methods i.e., from repeat in-line inspection data. The model considers the effect of the different variables that contribute to external corrosion and ranks them according to their effect on corrosion growth rate to produce a corrosion rate score. The resulting score is then linked to a corrosion rate database to obtain an estimated corrosion rate. The methodology has been validated by linking the calculated corrosion rate scores to known corrosion rate distributions that have been measured by comparison of the results from multiple in-line inspection runs. The paper goes on to illustrate how the estimated corrosion rates can be used for the establishment of reassessment intervals for DA, ILI and hydrotesting, comparing the benefits of this approach with current industry recommended practice and guidance.

AB - One of the requirements of a comprehensive pipeline Integrity Management Plan (IMP) is the establishment of safe and cost effective re-assessment intervals for the chosen assessment method, either Direct Assessment (DA), In-Line Inspection (ILI) or hydrotesting. For pipelines where the major threat is external or internal corrosion, the determination of an appropriate re-inspection interval requires the estimation of realistic corrosion growth rates. The Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS 2005) estimate that the ability to accurately estimate corrosion rates may save pipeline companies more than $100M/year through reduced maintenance and accident avoidance costs. Unlike internal corrosion, which occurs in a closed system, the rate of the external corrosion reaction is influenced by a number of factors including the water content of the soil, the soluble salts present, the pH of the corrosion environment and the degree of oxygenation. Therefore the prediction of external rates is complex and there is currently no method for estimating corrosion rates using either empirical or mechanistic equations. This paper describes a scoring model that has been developed to estimate external corrosion growth rates for pipelines where rates cannot be estimated using more conventional methods i.e., from repeat in-line inspection data. The model considers the effect of the different variables that contribute to external corrosion and ranks them according to their effect on corrosion growth rate to produce a corrosion rate score. The resulting score is then linked to a corrosion rate database to obtain an estimated corrosion rate. The methodology has been validated by linking the calculated corrosion rate scores to known corrosion rate distributions that have been measured by comparison of the results from multiple in-line inspection runs. The paper goes on to illustrate how the estimated corrosion rates can be used for the establishment of reassessment intervals for DA, ILI and hydrotesting, comparing the benefits of this approach with current industry recommended practice and guidance.

KW - corrosion growth rates

KW - integrity management plan (IMP)

KW - internal corrosion

KW - oil and gas pipelines

KW - pipeline Safety

KW - accident prevention

KW - gas pipelines

KW - mathematical models

KW - parameter estimation

KW - pipeline codes

KW - corrosion rate

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Race JM, Stanley L, Dawson SJ, Kariyawasam S. Predicting corrosion rates for onshore oil and gas pipelines. 2007. Paper presented at 2006 6th International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2006, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2006-10261